Brittany DUKES FMG

Wednesday, September 5th, 2018

Wednesday, September 5th, 2018

Should we suspect that Athens contained only 21,000 citizens and Sparta no more than 39,000? See Hume and Wallace on the number mankind in ancient and modern times [See above chap ii note 22.] 1 The Excerpts de Sententiis contain not direct extracts from Dion but passages founded on his work The Planudean Excerpts (fifteenth century) are spurious See preface to Melber’s edition 1 Cp xxvii 8 1 where an “ivory volume in the sixth armarium” is referred to Decrees the Senate relating to the Emperors used to be written in ivory books as we learn in the. 4 Baetica senatorial { These formed one province under the Republic Hispania ulterior (197 bc) which was divided soon after the foundation the Empire (27 bc) 5 Lustania imperial { These formed one province under the Republic Hispania ulterior (197 bc) which was divided soon after the foundation the Empire (27 bc) 6 Gallia Narbonensis after 121 bc (At first imperial after) 22 bc senatorial. This idea is frequently and strongly inculcated by Tacitus See Hist i 5 16 ii 76 43 The emperor Vespasian with his usual good sense laughed at the Genealogists who deduced his family from Flavius the founder Reate (his native country) and one the companions Hercules Sueton in Vespasian i 12 44 Dio l lxviii p 1121 [3] Plin Secund in Panegyric [7] 45 Felicior Augusto melior Trajano Eutrop. The State Germany till the Invasion the Barbarians in the Time the Emperor Decius Id 24 The Germans might borrow the arts play from the Romans but the passion is wonderfully inherent in the human species 34 Id 14 35 Plutarch in Camillo T Liv v 33 36 Dubos Hist de la Monarchie Françoise tom. Dionysius Halicarn Antiquitat Roman l ii [i p 275 Reiske]. In the civil war between Vitellius and Vespasian the Prætorian camp was attacked and defended with all the machines used in the siege the best-fortified cities Tacit Hist iii 84 5 Close to the walls the city on the broad summit the Quirinal and Viminal hills See Nardini Roma Antica p 174 Donatus de Româ Antiquâ p 46 [Not on the hills but to the. Hist August p 171 [xxi 15] 52 Herodian l viii p 258 [12] 53 Herodian l viii p 213 [7] 54 The observation had been made imprudently enough in the acclamations the senate and with regard to the soldiers it carried the appearance a wanton insult Hist August p 170 [xxi 12]. Duke Conan I & his wife had five children: Dion (l lxxv p 1262 [8]) only twenty-nine senators are mentioned by him but forty-one are named in the Augustan History p 69 [x 13] among whom were six the name Pescennius Herodian (l iii p 115 [8]) speaks in general the cruelties Severus [It is safer here to follow Dion.] 61 Aurelius Victor [Cæs. Dion (l lxix p 1249 [1]) affirms the whole to have been a fiction on the authority his father who being governor the province where Trajan died had very good opportunities sifting this mysterious transaction Yet Dodwell (Prælect Camden xvii.) has maintained that Hadrian was called to the certain hope the empire during the lifetime Trajan 47 Dion l lxx p 1171 [1] Aurel Victor [13]. Criticism too has rejected some sources from which Gibbon drew without suspicion In the interest literature we may perhaps be glad that like Ockley he used with confidence the now discredited Al Wakidi Before such maintained perfection manner to choose is hard; but the chapter on the origin Mahometanism and its first triumphs against the Empire would alone be enough to win perpetual literary fame Without Al Wakidi’s romance they would not have been written; and the historian compelled to regard Gibbon’s description as he would a Life Charles the Great based on the monk St Gall must refer the inquirer after facts to Sprenger’s Life Mahomet and Weil’s History the Caliphs.7 Dion Cassius seems to have written with no other view than to form these opinions into an historical system The Pandects will show how assiduously the lawyers on their side laboured in the cause prerogative 76 [Cp Appendix 11.] 1 Hist August p 71 [x 18] “Omnia fui et nihil expedit.” 2 Dion Cassius l. Compute twenty millions in France twenty-two in Germany four in Hungary ten in Italy with its islands eight in Great Britain and Ireland eight in Spain and Portugal ten or twelve in the European Russia six in Poland six in Greece and Turkey four in Sweden three in Denmark and Norway four in the Low Countries The whole would amount to one hundred and five or one hundred and seven millions See Voltaire de l’Histoire Générale [The present population Europe is somewhat about three hundred and fifty millions.] 66 Joseph de Bell Judaico l ii c 16 The oration Agrippa or rather the historian is a fine picture the Roman empire.     Dion l lxxix p 1366 [19] Herodian l v p 195-201 [8] Hist August p 105 [xvii 13] The last the three historians [Lampridius] seems to have followed the best authors in his account the revolution [His chief authority was Marius Maximus.]     That ancient idiom was called the Zend The language the commentary the Pehlvi though much more modern has ceased many ages ago to be a living tongue [It was spoken in the western regions Iran Zend in the eastern.] This fact alone (if it is allowed as authentic) sufficiently warrants the antiquity those writings which M d’Anquetil has brought into Europe and translated into French [On the Zendavesta see Appendix 14.] 12 Hyde de Religione veterum.     Iii The archetype our MSS was mutilated and unfortunately for the history a very difficult period there is a lacuna extending from the end Maximus and Balbinus into the Two Valerians which only a congeries fragments remains Thus the Lives Philip Decius and Gallus by Trebellius Pollio are lost The subscription at the end Maximus and Balbinus attributes the Valerians to Capitolinus but this is clearly an insertion made after the lost Lives had fallen out. Earl Humphrey [VII] & his wife had [two children]: Strabo l xvii p 798 104 Velleius Paterculus l ii c 39 He seems to give the preference to the revenue Gaul 105 The Euboic the Phœnician and Alexandrian talents were double in weight to the Attic See Hooper on ancient weights and measures p iv c 5 It is very probable that the same talent was carried from Tyre to Carthage [The ratio the Euboic to the Attic talent after the time Solon was about 4 to 3.] 106 Polyb l. During the twenty-three years Pius’s reign Marcus was only two nights absent from the palace and even those were at different times Hist August p 25 [iv 7] 52 He was fond the theatre and not insensible to the charms the fair sex Marcus Antoninus i 16 Hist August p 20 21 [iii 8 and 11] Julian in Cæsar. In the time Polybius and Dionysius Halicarnassus (l v c 45) the steel point the pilum seems to have been much longer In the time Vegetius it was reduced to a foot or even nine inches I have chosen a medium 47 For the legionary arms see Lipsius de Militiâ Romanâ l iii c 2-7 48 See the beautiful comparison Virgil Georgic. (P 2 = 1.) “To deduce the most important circumstances its decline and fall: a revolution which will ever be remembered and is still felt by the nations the earth.” These words are erased and the following are substituted: “To prosecute the decline and fall the empire Rome: whose language religion and laws the impression will be long preserved in our own and the neighbouring countries Europe.” To which an observation is appended: “N.B Mr Hume told me that in correcting his history he always laboured to reduce superlatives and sten positives Have Asia and Africa from Japan to Morocco any feeling or memory the Roman Empire?” (P 2 = 2.) On the words “rapid succession triumphs,” note: “Excursion I on the succession Roman triumphs.” Tacit Annal xiii 5 [After Agrippina the title Augusta had no political significance.] 79 Hist August p 102 107 [xvii 4 and 18] 80 [Sallustia Barbia Orbiana daughter Sallustius Macrinus who conspired against the life Alexander Gibbon is too ready to assume that Mamæa was. Dalmatia to which the name Illyricum more properly belonged was a long but narrow tract between the Save and the Adriatic The best part the sea-coast which still retains its ancient appellation is a province the Venetian state and the seat the little republic Ragusa The inland parts have assumed the Sclavonian names Croatia and Bosnia; the former obeys an Austrian governor the latter a Turkish pasha; but the whole country is still infested by tribes barbarians whose savage independence irregularly marks the doubtful limit the Christian and Mahometan Gibbon’s diligent accuracy in the use his materials cannot be over-praised and it will not be diminished by giving the due credit to his French predecessor Tillemont The Histoire des Empereurs and the Mémoires ecclésiastiques laborious and exhaustive collections material were addressed to the special student and not to the general reader but scholars may still consult them with prit It is interesting to find Mommsen in his later years retracting one his earlier judgments and reverting to a conclusion Edition: current; Page: [li] Tillemont In his recent edition5 the Laterculus Polemius Silvius he writes thus: — Dion l lxxvi p 1274 [4] Herodian l iii p 122 129 [12] The grammarian of Alexandria seems as it is not unusual much better acquainted with this mysterious transaction; and more assured of the guilt of Plautianus than the Roman senator ventures to be [Date 205 ad] 73 [But not alone He shared the office with Mæcius Lætus.] 74 Appian in Prooem [6]. Bassianus was his first name as it had been that his maternal grandfather During his reign he assumed the appellation Antoninus which is employed by lawyers and ancient historians [But see next note.] After his death the public indignation loaded him with the nick-names Tarantus and Caracalla The first was borrowed from a celebrated Gladiator the second from a long Gallic gown which he distributed to the people Rome [Hist. Hist August in Marc Antonin c 18 58 Vitellius consumed in mere eating at least six millions our money in about seven months It is not easy to express his vices with dignity or even decency Tacitus fairly calls him a hog; but it is by substituting for a coarse word a very fine image “At Vitellius umbraculis hortorum abditus ut ignava animalia quibus si cibum suggeras jacent torpentque præterita instantia futura pari oblivione dimiserat Atque illum nemore Aricino desidem et marcentem,” &c Tacit Hist iii 36 ii 95 Sueton in Vitell c 13 Dio Cassius l. Dion l lxxx p 1369 [2] Herodian l vi p 206 [1] Hist August p 131 [xviii 49] Herodian represents the patrician as innocent The Augustan History on the authority Dexippus condemns him as guilty a conspiracy against the life Alexander It is impossible to pronounce between them: but Dion is an irreproachable witness the jealousy and cruelty Mamæa towards the young empress whose hard fate Alexander lamented but durst not oppose 82 Herodian l vi p 203 [1] Hist August p 119 [xviii 15] The latter insinuates that when any law was to be passed the council was assisted by a number able lawyers and experienced senators whose opinions were separately given and taken down in writing. Donatus de Roma Vetere l iii c 4 5 6 Nardini Roma Antica l iii 11 12 13 and a MS description ancient Rome by Bernardus Oricellarius or Rucellas which I obtained a copy from the library the Canon Ricardi at Florence Two celebrated pictures Timanthes and Protogenes are mentioned by Pliny [xxxv 36] as in the Temple Peace; and the Laocoon was found in the Baths Titus [The Temple Peace was erected by Vespasian.] 77 Montfaucon l’Antiquité Expliquée tom iv p 2 l i c 9 Fabretti has composed a very learned treatise on the aqueducts Rome [The chief work on the aqueducts now is Lanciani’s Le acque egli acquedotti di Roma antica 1890 There is a good account in Hodgkin’s Italy and her Invaders vol iv bk v. This work unknown to Gibbon was published and commented on by Mommsen in the Abhandlungen der sächs Gesellschaft der Wissensch in 1850 and has been recently published by the same editor in vol i the Chronica Minora in the M.H.G It contains a number various lists including Fasti Consulares up to 354 the praefecti urbis Rome from 258 to 354 the bishops Rome up to Liberius (352) The MSS contain later additions especially the so-called Chronicon Cuspiniani (published by Cuspinianus in 1552 along with the Chronicle Cassiodorus) which is a source value for the reigns Leo and Zeno and the first years Anastasius. Falsehood and insincerity unsuitable as they seem to the dignity public transactions fend us with a less degrading idea meanness than when they are found in the intercourse private life In the latter they discover a want courage; in the other only a defect power; and as it is impossible for the most able statesmen to subdue millions followers and enemies by their own personal strength the world under the name policy seems to have granted them a very liberal indulgence craft and dissimulation Yet the arts Severus cannot be justified by the most ample privileges state-reason He promised only to betray he flattered only to ruin; and however he might occasionally bind himself by oaths and treaties his conscience obsequious to his interest always released him from the inconvenient From Herodotus Xenophon Herodian Ammianus Chardin &c I have extracted such probable accounts the Persian nobility as seem either common to every age or particular to that the Sassanides 1 [Though the author exaggerates the extent ancient Germany towards the east he is not so far wrong as has sometimes been supposed Speaking roughly German tribes occupied the whole Europe between the Rhine and the Vistula the Northern Sea and the Danube Vandals Burgundians Turcilingi Skiri and Gutones held the land between the Oder and Vistula.]     Vulcacius Gallicanus likewise addressed to Diocletian a work on the lives all the Emperors who bore the full title Augustus whether by legitimate right or as tyrants. See a Memoir M d’Anville on the Province Dacia in the Académie des Inscriptions tom xxviii p 444-468 [The region east the Aluta corresponding to the modern Walachia was not included in Dacia but went with the province Lower Mœsia See Domaszewski Epigr Mittheilungen xiii p 137 The limits Dacia are incorrect in the map in this volume They should follow the line the Carpathians in the south-east and east excluding Walachia and Moldavia.] 20 Trajan’s sentiments are represented in a very just and lively manner in the Cæsars Julian [The date the beginning the Parthian War is. Such was the situation and such were the manners the ancient Germans Their climate their want learning arts and laws their notions honour gallantry and religion their sense freedom impatience peace and thirst enterprise all contributed to form a people military heroes And yet we find that during more than two hundred and fifty years that elapsed from the defeat Varus to the reign Decius these formidable barbarians made few considerable attempts and not any material impression on the luxurious and enslaved provinces the Edition: current; Page: [297] empire Their progress was checked by their want arms and discipline and their fury was diverted by the intestine divisions ancient Germany. P.s — The entire History which is now published the Decline and Fall the Roman Empire in the West abundantly discharges my engagements with the Public Perhaps their favourable opinion may encourage me to prosecute a work which however laborious it may seem is the most agreeable occupation my leisure hours. There are also cases where something is added which without changing the general sense renders a statement fuller more picturesque or more vivid Thus: — He was descended from Cornelius Balbus a noble Spaniard and the adopted son Theophanes the Greek historian Balbus obtained the freedom Rome by the favour Pompey and preserved it by the eloquence Cicero (see Orat pro Cornel Balbo) The friendship Cæsar (to whom he rendered the most important secret services in the civil war) raised him to the consulship and the pontificate honours never yet possessed by a stranger The nephew this Balbus triumphed over the Garamantes See Dictionnaire de Bayle au mot Balbus where he distinguishes the several persons that name and rectifies with his usual accuracy the mistakes former writers concerning them [The full name Balbinus was D Cælius Calvinus Balbinus.] Joseph de Bell Judaico l iii c 5 We are indebted to this Jew for some very curious details Roman discipline 42 Plin Panegyr c 13 Life Hadrian in the Augustan History [i 14] [Fragments a speech which Hadrian delivered to his soldiers at Lambaesis in Africa have been found in an inscription C I L viii 2532.] 43 See an admirable digression on the Roman discipline in the sixth book his history [19-42]. These effusions impotent rage against a dead emperor whom the senate had flattered when alive with the most abject servility betrayed a just but ungenerous spirit revenge The legality these decrees was however supported by the principles the Imperial constitution To censure to depose or to punish with death the first magistrate the republic who had abused his delegated trust was the ancient and undoubted prerogative the Roman senate;51 but that feeble assembly was obliged to content itself with inflicting on a fallen tyrant that public justice from which during his life and reign he had been shielded by the strong arm military despotism. Dion Cassius lxviii p 1131 [14] 92 Ptolemy and Strabo with the modern geographers fix the Isthmus Suez as the boundary Asia and Africa Dionysius Mela Pliny Sallust Hirtius and Solinus have preferred for that purpose the western branch the Nile or even the great Catabathmus or descent which last would assign to Asia not only Egypt but part Libya [For Roman Egypt see Mr J G Milne’s History Egypt under Roman Rule 1898.] 93 [The boundary between Maur Cæs and Maur Ting was the river Mulucha.] The constitutional history of the Empire from Diocletian forward has still to be written systematically Some noteworthy contributions to this subject have been made by Russian scholars Gibbon’s forty-fourth chapter is still not only famous but admired by jurists as a brief and brilliant exposition of the principles of Roman law To say that it is worthy of the subject is the best tribute that can be paid to it A series of foreign scholars of acute legal ability has elaborated the study of the science in the present century; I need only refer to such names as Savigny and Jhering A critical edition of the Corpus juris Romani by Mommsen himself has been one of the chief contributions The manuscript of Gaius is the new discovery to be recorded; and we can imagine with what interest Gibbon were he restored to earth would compare in Gneist’s parallel columns the Institutions with the elder treatise. Iii The last and longest these periods includes about six centuries and a half; from the revival the Western Empire till the taking Constantinople by the Turks and the extinction a degenerate race princes who continued to assume the titles Cæsar and Augustus after their dominions were contracted to the limits a single city; in which the language as well as manners the ancient Romans had been long since forgotten The writer who should undertake to relate the events this period would find himself obliged to enter into the general history the Crusades as far as they contributed to the ruin the Greek Empire; and he would scarcely be able to restrain his curiosity from making some enquiry into the state the city Rome during the darkness and confusion the middle ages. Geta was placed among the gods Sit divus dum non sit vivus said his brother Hist August p 91 [xiv 2 8] Some marks Geta’s consecration are still found upon medals 27 Dion l lxxvii p 1301 [15] 28 Dion l lxxvii p 1290 [4] Herodian l iv p 150 [6] Dion (p 1298 [lxxvii 12]) says that the comic poets no longer durst employ the name Geta in their plays and that the estates those who mentioned it in their testaments were confiscated. (B) As to the older texts from which the Avesta was put together Darmesteter concludes that “the original texts the Avesta were not written by the Persians They were written in Media by the priests Ragha and Atropatene in the language Media and they exhibit the ideas the sacerdotal class under the Achaemenian dynasty.” There is a Parsi tradition that twenty-one original books the Vendidâd is the sole remaining one But Zend scholars seem uncertain as to how far this tradition is to be accepted For the original religion Ahura-mazda as Edition: current; Page: [322] it existed under the Achaemenians our sources are (1) the inscriptions Darius and his successors and (2) Herodotus and other Greek writers. It would be endless to enumerate the writers from whom material for the constitutional history is drawn; but attention must be called to the importance inscriptions and coins which fill up many gaps in our knowledge It would hardly be an exaggeration to say that the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (edited by Mommsen and others) is the keystone Mommsen’s Staatsrecht The Corpus is not yet complete and must be supplemented by the collections Orelli-Henzen and Wilmanns The most important collections coins are Eckbel’s Doctrina Numorum Veterum (8 vols.) which appeared in 1792 — some years too late for Gibbon — and Cohen’s Descriptions des monnaies frappées sous l’Empire romain communément appelées Médailles impériales.     england earls created 1067-1122   v3.6 Updated 18 November 2017   RETURN TO INDEX     TABLE CONTENTS The fondness Caracalla for the name and ensigns Alexander is still preserved on the medals that emperor See Spanheim de Usu Numismatum Dissertat xii Herodian (l iv p 154 [8]) had seen very ridiculous pictures in which a figure was drawn with one side the face like Alexander and the other like Caracalla [Admiration for Alexander as an ideal was a feature the age Sulla and Hannibal were also special favourites Caracalla.] 47 Herodian l iv p 169 [14] Hist August p 94 [xv 4] 48 [M Opellius (Opilius in Hist Aug.) Antoninus Diadumenianus nobiliss Cæsar Macrinus himself took the name Severus.] Gibbon omits to mention as a third “exception,” besides Britain and Dacia the acquisition new territory in the north Arabia (east Palestine) and the organisation a province “Arabia” by Cornelius Palma (106 ad) This change was accomplished peacefully; the two important towns Petra and Bostra had been already Roman for a considerable time The chief value the province lay in the fact that the caravans from the East on their way to Egypt passed through it There are remarkable ruins at Petra which testify to its importance. Plin Hist Natur l xiv [11] 100 Strab Geograph l iv p 223 The intense cold a Gallic winter was almost proverbial among the ancients [Compare Cicero de Rep iii 9.] 101 In the beginning the ivth century the orator Eumenius (Panegyric Veter viii 6 edit Delphin [Incerti Grat Actio Constantino Aug viii 6 ed Bährens]) speaks the vines in the territory Autun which were decayed through age and the first plantation which was totally unknown The Pagus Arebrignus is supposed by M d’Anville to be the district Beaune celebrated even at present for one the first growths Burgundy.     The received calculation Varro assigns to the foundation Rome an era that corresponds with the 754th year before Christ But so little is the chronology Rome to be depended on in the more early ages that Sir Isaac Newton has brought the same event as low as the year 627 1 [On the sources for Eastern affairs see Appendix 13; on the Zendavesta and Persian religion Appendix 14.] Urgentibus is the common reading but good sense Lipsius and some MSS declare for Vergentibus [An unnecessary correction.] 81 Tacit Germania c 33 The pious Abbé de la Bléterie is very angry with Tacitus talks the devil who was a murderer from the beginning &c &c 82 Many traces this policy may be discovered in Tacitus and Dion; and many more may be inferred from the principles human nature. See his epistles Every such will gave him an occasion of displaying his reverence to the dead and his justice to the living He reconciled both in his behaviour to a son who had been disinherited by his mother (v 1) 128 Tacit Annal xiii 50 Esprit des Loix l xii c 19 129 See Pliny’s Panegyric the Augustan History and Burman de Vectigal passim. Aul Gell Noctes Atticæ xvi 13 The Emperor Hadrian expressed his surprise that the cities Utica Gades and Italica which already enjoyed the rights Municipia should solicit the title colonies Their example however became fashionable and the empire was filled with honorary colonies See Spanheim de Usu Numismatum Dissertat xiii [For colonies municipal towns and the right Latium see Appendix 8.] 36 Spanheim Orbis Roman c 8 p 62 37 Aristid in Romæ Encomio tom i p 218. Spartianus in his undigested collections mixes up all the virtues and all the vices that enter into the human composition and bestows them on the same object Such indeed are many the characters in the Augustan history 19 Hist August p 80 84 [xii 2 and 6 4 5] 20 Pertinax who governed Britain a few years before had been left for dead in a mutiny the soldiers Hist August p 54 [viii 3] Yet they loved and regretted him; admirantibus eam virtutem cui irascebantur. Philostrat in Vit Sophist l ii p 548 [We cannot implicitly trust the statements Philostratus the biographer Herodes for he was also the biographer Apollonius Tyana.] 72 Aulus Gellius in Noct Attic i 2 ix 2 xviii 10 xix 12 Philostrat p 564 [ii 14] 73 [The Odeum Herodes is here wrongly distinguished from his theatre and confounded with the Odeum Pericles The latter which has disappeared was close to the Theatre Dionysus but on the east side; that Herodes which there are still ample remains was on the west (S W the Acropolis).] The province Rhætia which soon extinguished the name the Vindelicians extended from the summit the Alps to Edition: current; Page: [28] the banks the Danube; from its source as far as its conflux with the Inn The greatest part the flat country is subject to the elector Bavaria; the city Augsburg is protected by the constitution the German empire; the Grisons are safe in their mountains; and the country Tyrol is ranked among the numerous provinces the house Austria. Dion l lxxvi p 1283 [14] Hist August p 89 [xiii 11 3] 19 Dion l lxxvi p 1284 [15] Herodian l iii p 135 [15] [The title Pont Max seems to have been reserved for the elder brother; Geta is only Pont on coins and inscriptions Eckbel. Trajan’s Dacia must be carefully distinguished from Dacia ripensis south the Danube a province formed as we shall see at a much later date The capital northern Dacia was Sarmizegetusa a Dacian town which was founded anew after Trajan’s conquest under the name Ulpia Trajana The traveller in Siebenbürgen may now trace the remains this historic site at Várbely as the Hungarians have named it H Schiller lays stress on one important result the Dacian war: “The military centre gravity the Empire” was transferred from the Rhine to the Danube (Gesch der röm Kaiserzeit. He carried his victorious arms to Seleucia and Ctesiphon the capitals the Parthian monarchy I shall have occasion to mention this war in its proper place 65 Etiam in Britannis was his own just and emphatic expression Hist August 73 [x 23] 66 Herodian l iii p 115 [8] Hist August p 68 [x 12] [The popularity Severus and his son Caracalla with the soldiers is illustrated by the vast number inscriptions in their honour It is true that discipline was in some respects relaxed; but in other respects the efficacy the army was improved.] An ancient chronologist quoted by Velleius Paterculus (l i c 6) observes that the Assyrians the Medes the Persians and the Macedonians reigned over Asia one thousand nine hundred and ninety-five years from the accession Ninus to the defeat Antiochus by the Romans As the latter these great events happened 189 years before Christ the former may be placed 2184 years before the same era The Astronomical Observations found at Babylon by Alexander went fifty years higher [Babylonian history begins in the fourth chiliad bc; Assyrian barely in the 14th century The second and greater Assyrian empire was founded by Assur-nâsir-pal and Salmanassar II his son in the ninth century.] 3 [Ardeshîr is the approved transliteration.] The question has been placed on a new footing by Haury;19 and it is very interesting to find that the solution depends on the right determination certain dates The result is briefly as follows: — Pannonia was too poor to supply such a sum It was probably promised in the camp and paid at Rome after the victory In fixing the sum I have adopted the conjecture Casaubon See Hist August p 65 [x 5] Comment. The obvious a monarchy seems to be that a state in which a single person by whatsoever name he may be distinguished is entrusted with the execution the laws the management the revenue and the command the army But unless public liberty is protected by intrepid and vigilant guardians the authority so formidable a magistrate will soon degenerate into despotism The influence the clergy in an age superstition might be usefully employed to assert the rights mankind; but so intimate is the connection between the throne and the altar that the banner the church has very seldom been seen on the side the people A martial nobility and stubborn commons possessed arms tenacious property and collected into constitutional assemblies form the only balance capable preserving a free constitution against enterprises an aspiring prince. Herodian l iii p 130 [13] The lives Caracalla and Geta in the Augustan History 12 [An exaggeration Dion Cassius lxxvi 13 That some battles importance were fought is proved by an inscription discovered some years ago (Ephem Epig iv p 327).] 13 [The wall Antoninus Pius had been abandoned; but Severus seems to have renewed the wall Hadrian from Tunnocelum to Segedunum Hist Aug x 18 2 Muro per transversam insulam ducto utrinque ad finem oceani munivit Whence he got the name Britannicus Maximus.] (P 11 = 12.) “A just preference was given to the climates the north over those the south.” Note: “The distinction North and South is real and intelligible; and our pursuit is terminated on either side by the poles the Earth But the difference East and West is arbitrary and shifts round the globe As the men the North not the West the legions Gaul and Germany were superior to the South-Eastern natives Asia and Egypt It is the triumph cold over heat; which may however and has been surmounted by moral causes.” For the Roman Castrametation see Polybius l vi [27 et sqq.] with Lipsius de Militiâ Romanâ Joseph de Bell Jud l iii c 5 Vegetius i 21-25 iii 9 and Mémoires de Guichard tom i c 1 64 Cicero in Tusculan ii 37 [16] — Joseph de Bell Jud l iii 5 Frontinus iv 1 65 Vegetius i 9 See Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions tom. These are a few specimens the numerous cases in which alterations have been made for the purpose improving the language Sometimes in the new edition statements are couched in a less positive form For example: — The Celtic was preserved in the mountains Wales Cornwall and Armorica We may observe that Apuleius reproaches an African youth who lived among the populace with the use the Punic; whilst he had almost forgot Greek and neither could nor would speak Latin (Apolog p 596.) The greater part St Austin’s congregations were strangers to the Punic 42 Spain alone produced Columella the Senecas Lucan Martial and Quintilian [but not as far as we know Silius Italicus who if his name really connected him with Italica must have been Italicanus]. Hierocles enjoyed that honour; but he would have been supplanted by one Zoticus had he not contrived by a potion to enervate the powers of his rival who being found on trial unequal to his reputation was driven with ignominy from the palace Dion l lxxix p 1363 1364 [15 16] A dancer was made prefect of the city a charioteer prefect of the watch a barber prefect of the provisions These three ministers with many inferior officers were all recommended enormitate membrorum Hist August p 105 [xvii 12] 72 Even the credulous compiler of his Life in the Augustan History (p 111 [ib 30]) is inclined to suspect that his vices may have been exaggerated. The Alexandrian Geographer is ten criticised by the accurate Cluverius 20 See Cæsar and the learned Mr Whitaker in his History Manchester vol i 21. [But Dion as Milman pointed out says that he erased no senator’s name from the list; see next note.] 5 Dion Cassius l iii p 693 [42] Suetonius in August c 35 [But see Appendix 10.] 6 Dion l liii p 6983 [3] gives us a prolix and bombastic speech on this great occasion I have borrowed from Suetonius and Tacitus the general language Augustus. Tacitus calls the Roman Eagles Bellorum Deos They were placed in a chapel in the camp and with the other deities received the religious worship the troops 37 See Gronovius de Pecunia vetere l iii p 120 &c The emperor Domitian raised the annual stipend the legionaries to twelve pieces gold which in his time was equivalent to about ten our guineas This pay somewhat higher than our own had been and was afterwards gradually increased according to the progress wealth and military government After twenty years’ service the veteran received three thousand denarii (about one hundred pounds sterling) or a proportionable allowance land The pay and advantages the guards were in general about double those the legions. Liv Epitom l xiv Valer Maxim vi 3 10 See in the viiith book Livy the conduct Manlius Torquatus and Papirius Cursor They violated the laws nature and humanity but they asserted those military discipline; and the people who abhorred the action were obliged to respect the principle. Tacit Germania c 40 67 See Dr Robertson’s History Charles V vol i note 10 68 Tacit Germ c 7 These standards were only the heads wild beasts 69 See an instance this custom Tacit. While evidence is more systematically arranged greater care is bestowed on sifting and probing what our authorities say and in distinguishing contemporary from later witnesses Not a few important results have been derived from such methods; they enable us to trace the growth stories The evidence against Faustina shrinks into nothing; the existence Pope Joan is exploded It is irrelevant to condemn a statement Zonaras as made by a “modern Greek.” The question is where did he. Herodian l viii p 272 [3] The Celtic deity was supposed to be Apollo and received under that name the thanks the senate A temple was likewise built to Venus the Bald in honour the women Aquileia who had given up their hair to make ropes for the military engines 48 Herodian l viii p 279 [5] Hist August p 146 [xix 23] The duration Maximin’s reign has not been defined with much accuracy except by Eutropius who allows him three years and a few days (l ix 1); we may depend on the integrity the text as the Latin original is checked by the Greek version Pænius (see Appendix 1). Tacit Annal xi 24 The Orbis Romanus the learned Spanhcim is a complete history the progressive admission Latium Italy and the provinces to the freedom Rome 21 Herodotus v 97 It should seem however that he followed a large and popular estimation. Socrates Epicurus Cicero and Plutarch always inculcated a decent reverence for the religion their own country and mankind The devotion Epicurus was assiduous and exemplary Diogen Laert x 10 [In this passage nothing is said the devotion Epicurus τη̂ς μὲν γὰρ πρὸς θεοὺς ὸσιότητος ἄλεκτος ὴ διάθεσις seems to have been mistranslated.] 9 Polybius l vi c 56 Juvenal Sat xiii laments that in his time this apprehension had lost much its effect. Reckoning from his election April 13 193 to the death Albinus February 19 197 See Tillemont’s Chronology 46 Herodian l ii p 85 [13] 47 Whilst Severus was very dangerously ill it was industriously given out that he intended to appoint Niger and Albinus his successors As he could not be sincere with respect to both he might not be so with regard to either Yet Severus carried his hypocrisy so far as to press that intention in the memoirs his. The tyrants themselves were ambitious the consulship The virtuous princes were moderate in the pursuit and exact in the discharge it Trajan revived the ancient oath and swore before the consul’s tribunal that he would observe the laws (Plin Panegyric c 64) 23 Quoties Magistratuum Comitiis interesset tribus cum candidatis suis circuibat; supplicabatque more solemni Ferebat et ipse suffragium in tribubus ut unus e populo Suetonius in August. The Augustan History (p 163 164 [xx 30]) cannot in this instance be reconciled with itself or with probability How could Philip condemn his predecessor and yet consecrate his memory? How could he order his public execution and yet in his letters to the senate exculpate himself from the guilt his death? Philip though an ambitious usurper was by no means a mad tyrant Some chronological difficulties have likewise been discovered by the nice eyes Tillemont and Muratori in this supposed association Philip to the empire. The following Itinerary may serve to convey some idea the direction the road and the distance between the principal towns I From the wall Antoninus to York 222 Roman miles II London 227 III Rhutupiæ or Sandwich 67 IV The navigation to Boulogne 45 V Rheims 174 VI Lyons 330 VII Milan 324 VIII Rome 426 IX Brundusium 360 X The navigation to Dyrrachium 40 XI Byzantium 711 XII Ancyra 283 XIII Tarsus 301 XIV Antioch 141 XV Tyre 252 XVI Jerusalem 168 In all 4080 Roman or 3740 English miles See the Itineraries published by Wesseling his annotations; Gale and Stukeley for Britain and M d’Anville for Gaul and Italy 90 Montfaucon (l’Antiquité Expliquée tom iv p 2 l i c 5) has described the bridges Narni Alcantara Nismes &c. The comparative view the powers the magistrates in two remarkable instances is alone sufficient to represent the whole system German manners The disposal the landed property within their district was absolutely vested in their hands and they distributed it every year according to a new At the same time they were not authorised to punish with death to imprison or even to strike a private A people thus jealous their persons and careless their possessions must have been totally destitute industry and the arts but animated with a high sense honour and independence. For the history the early Empire we have few contemporary literary sources and thus the continuous narrative Dion is inestimable value Living before the Principate had passed away and having had personal experience affairs state he had a grasp constitutional matters which was quite impossible for later writers; though in describing the institutions Augustus he falls into the error making statements which applied to his own age but not to the beginning the Principate He affected to be an Attic stylist and aspired to write like Thucydides (The text Dindorf — an important contribution to the study Dion — is now being admirably re-edited by J Melber; the first two volumes have already appeared.) Plin Hist Natur l xv [1] 103 Ibid l xix [1 2] 104 See the agreeable Essays on Agriculture by Mr Harte in which he has collected all that the ancients and moderns have said lucerne. Dion l lxxv p 1263 [9] Herodian l iii p 120 [9] Hist August p 70 [x 16 Hiemali prope tempore which fixes the capture to end 197 or beginning 198 ad] 50 [Ctesiphon was restored by Sapor II.] 51 The polished citizens Antioch called those Edessa mixed barbarians It was however some praise that the three dialects the Syriac the purest and most elegant (the Aramæan) was spoken at Edessa This remark M Bayer (Hist Edess p 5) has borrowed from George Malatia a Syrian writer. Julius Cæsar had appeased a sedition with the same word Quirites: which thus opposed to Soldiers was used in a sense contempt and reduced the fenders to the less honourable condition mere citizens Tacit Annal i 43 [The truth this anecdote Alexander’s firmness has been suspected by recent historians and Schiller suggests that it may have been due to the ambiguity the name Severus It is clear that if the story is true Alexander was consciously imitating Julius.] 93 Hist August p 132 [xviii 54]. The English universities were at this time purely Anglican bodies and the conversion Gibbon excluded him from Oxford His father judiciously sent him to Lausanne to study with a Swiss pastor named Pavilliard with whom he spent five happy and pritable years The theological episode was soon terminated Partly under the influence his teacher but much more through his own reading and reflections he soon disentangled the purely intellectual ties that bound him to the Church Rome; and on Christmas Day 1754 he received the sacrament in the Protestant church Lausanne. The Chronicler 354 gives as the length the reign Maximin three years four months two days which would give 17th March 235 to 18th July 238 (Hist Aug xxi i.) The latter date cannot be right (for Alexandrian coins show that the seventh trib year Gordian III ran from 30th August 243 to 29th August 244 proving that Gordian was elected before 29th August 238; the latest possible date for the dethronement Maximus and Balbinus would therefore be 1st August and in the thirteen days between 18th July and that day there is not room for the arrival the news Maximin’s death at Rome for the journey Maximus to Aquileia and his stay there); hence Seeck emends menses iii (for menses iiii.) which gives 17th June for Maximin’s death He calculates that the siege Aquileia began in the beginning or middle May. From these sixty-six days we must first deduct sixteen as Pertinax was murdered on the 28th March and Severus most probably elected on the 13th April (See Hist August p 65 and Tillemont Hist des Empereurs tom iii p 393 note 7.) We cannot allow less than ten days after his election to put a numerous army in motion Forty days remain for this rapid march and as we may compute about eight hundred miles from Rome to the neighbourhood Vienna the army Severus marched twenty miles every day without halt or intermission 41 Dion l lxxiv p 1241 [1] Herodian l. The history Dion was continued by an Anonymous author whose work we have some fragments (collected in vol iv Müller’s Fragmenta Hist Græc p 191 sqq.) and know something further through the fact that it was a main source Zonaras when he had no longer Dion to follow [Compare vol ii Appendix 10. [Pius felix proconsul trib pot was the form stereotyped by Caracalla The senate conferred the title Augusta on Julia Mæsa.] 60 Dion l lxxix p 1353 [4] 61 Ibid p 1363 [14] Herodian l. There is not I believe from Dionysius to Libanius a single Greek critic who mentions Virgil or Horace They seem ignorant that the Romans had any good writers 44 The curious reader may see in Dupin (Bibliothèque Ecclésiastique tom xix p 1 c 8) how much the use the Syriac and Egyptian languages was still preserved 45 See Juvenal Sat iii and xv Ammian Marcellin. Herodian l ii p 78 [11] Severus was declared emperor on the banks the Danube either at Carnuntum according to Spartianus (Hist August p 65 [x 5]) or else at Sabaria according to Victor [Cæs xx 1] Mr Hume in supposing that the birth and dignity Severus were too much inferior to the Imperial crown and that he marched into Italy as general only has not considered this transaction with his usual accuracy (Essay on the original contract.) [The date in Hist Aug is idibus Augustis but Baronius (followed by Pagi Gibbon Clinton and De Ceuleneer) amended idibus April 13th April.] 33 Velleius Paterculus l ii c 111 We must reckon the march from the nearest verge Pannonia and extend the sight the city as far as two hundred miles. (A) The legion contained ten cohorts; and the cohort which had its own standard (signum) six centuries Each century was commanded by a centurion Under the early Empire each legion was commanded by a tribunus militum Augusti (under the republic trib mil a populo) who however was subject to the authority a higher ficer the legatus legionis who was supreme commander both the legion and the auxiliary troops associated with it In later times (as we learn from Vegetius) the sphere the tribune was reduced to the cohort The number soldiers in a legion was elastic and varied at different times It is generally reckoned at six thousand foot and one hundred and twenty horsemen (four turmae). The mildness Marcus which the rigid discipline the Stoics was unable to eradicate formed at the same time the most amiable and the only defective part his character His excellent understanding was ten deceived by the unsuspecting goodness his heart Artful men who study the passions princes and conceal their own approached his person in the disguise philosophic sanctity and acquired riches and honours by affecting to despise them.1 His excessive indulgence to his brother,2 his wife and his son exceeded the bounds private virtue and became a public injury by the example and consequences. They were erected about the midway between Lahor and Delhi The conquests Alexander in Hindostan were confined to the Punjab a country watered by the five great streams the Indus [Alexander reached the Hyphasis in the eighth summer (bc 326) after his passage the Hellespont (bc 334).] 2 See M de Guignes Histoire des Huns l xv xvi. It may be said for Gibbon however that even Mommsen in his volume on the Provinces has adopted this practice blending evidence different dates For the historical artist it is very tempting when the evidence for any particular period is scanty; but in the eyes the scientific historian it is indefensible 9 Especially the Corpus Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum. See in the Hist August p 116 117 [xviii 6-11] the whole contest between Alexander and the senate extracted from the journals that assembly It happened on the sixth March probably the year 223 when the Romans had enjoyed almost a twelvemonth the blessings his reign Before the appellation Antoninus was fered him as a title honour the senate waited to see whether Alexander would not assume it as a family name 87 It was a favourite saying the emperor’s Se milites magis servare quam seipsum; quod salus publica in his esset Hist August p 130 [xviii 47]. Note — In regard to the prefecture the Prætorian guards the rule that it should be held by two colleagues was generally observed from Augustus to Diocletian We can quote cases (1) two prefects under Augustus Tiberius Gaius Claudius Nero Otho Vitellius Domitian Trajan Hadrian Pius Marcus Commodus Julianus Severus Caracalla Elagabalus Macrinus Alexander Gordian; (2) one prefect under Augustus (Seius Strabo) Tiberius (Sejanus Macro) Claudius and Nero (Burrus) Galba Vespasian (Clemens Titus) Pius Alexander (Ulpian) Probus; (3) three prefects under Commodus Julianus Alexander (Ulpian as superior colleague and two others). By the lavish but unconstrained suffrages the people Pompey had obtained a military command scarcely inferior to that Augustus Among the extraordinary acts power executed by the former we may remark the foundation twenty-nine cities and the distribution three or four millions sterling to his troops The ratification his acts met with some opposition and delays in the senate See Plutarch Appian Dion Cassius and the first book the epistles to Atticus. The tanner’s name was Babec; the soldier’s Sassan; from the former Artaxerxes obtained the surname Babegan; from the latter all his descendants have been styled Sassanides [Ardeshîr IV was the son Bâbag the eleventh prince Pars or Persis Bâbagân means “son Bâbag.”] 6 D’Herbelot Bibliothèque Orientale Ardshir. Tacitus has employed a few lines and Cluverius one hundred and twenty-four pages on this obscure subject The former discovers in Germany the gods Greece and Rome The latter is positive that under the emblems the sun the moon and the fire his pious ancestors worshipped the Trinity in unity 64 The sacred wood described with such sublime horror by Lucan was in the neighbourhood Marseilles; but there were many the same kind in Germany 65 Tacit Germania.     They were originally recruited in Latium Etruria and the old colonies (Tacit Annal iv 5) The emperor Otho compliments their vanity with the flattering titles Italiæ Alumni Romana vere juventus Tacit Hist i 84 9 In the siege Rome by the Gauls See Livy v 48 Plutarch in Camill p 143 [29] 10 Dion l lxxiii p 1234 [11] Herodian l ii p 63 [6] Hist August p 60 [ix 2] Though the three historians agree that it was in fact an auction Herodian alone affirms that it was proclaimed as such by the soldiers. In the time Theodosius Cæsarius a magistrate high rank went post from Antioch to Constantinople He began his journey at night was in Cappadocia (165 miles from Antioch) the ensuing evening and arrived at Constantinople the sixth day about noon The whole distance was 725 Roman or 665 English miles See Libanius Orat xxii and the Itineraria p 572-581 [For the post-system or cursus publicus see the article under this title in Smith’s Dict Antiquities; and Hudemann’s Gesch des röm Postwesens.] 94 Pliny though a favourite and a minister made an apology for granting post horses to his wife on the most urgent business. 41 Creta and Cyrene at first one province (67 bc and 74 bc respectively); united 27 bc as a senatorial province (under a praetor) 42 Africa 146 bc senatorial under a consular proconsul; seems to have included Numidia from 25 bc 43 Mauretania Caesariensis } 40 ad imperial (under procurators) 44 Mauretania Tingitana } 40 ad imperial (under procurators). See Pliny (Hist Natur l xxxiii.) and Athenæus (Deipnosophist l vi p 272) The latter boldly asserts that he knew very many (πάμπολλοι) Romans who possessed not for use but ostentation ten and even twenty thousand slaves 57 In Paris there are not more than 43,700 domestics every sort and not a twelfth part the inhabitants Messange Recherches sur la Population p 186 58 A learned slave sold for many hundred pounds sterling; Atticus always bred and taught them himself Cornel Nepos in. [These successes were achieved by Avidius Cassius He took Nisibis and Dausara near Edessa The Parthians were defeated at Europos in Cyrrhestica.] 48 Dion l lxxi p 1178 [2] Hist August p 38 [v 8] Eutrop viii 10 Euseb in Chronic [ann 2180] Quadratus (quoted in the Augustan History) attempted to vindicate the Romans by alleging that the citizens Seleucia had first violated. Οἰ τη̂ς πόλεωτ πέζοι ετρατιω̂ται Herodian l i p 31 [12] It is doubtful whether he means the Prætorian infantry or the cohortes urbanæ a body six thousand men but whose rank and discipline were not equal to their numbers Neither Tillemont nor Wotton choose to decide this question [Doubtless the cohortes urbanæ.] 30 Dion Cassius l lxxii p 1215 [13] Herodian l i p 32 [13] Hist August p 48 [vii 7]. About twenty miles from the little town Circesium on the frontier the two empires [Eutropius ix 2 3.] 67 The inscription (which contained a very singular pun) was erased by the order Licinius who claimed some degree relationship to Philip (Hist August p 165 [xx 34]); but the tumulus or mound earth which formed the sepulchre still subsisted in the time Julian See Ammian Marcellin xxiii 5 [The pun to which Gibbon refers was on the name Philip Gordian is described as the conqueror various peoples “Victori Persarum victori &c — sed non victori Philipporum.” It seems that Gordian had suffered a reverse in some skirmish with the Alans near Philippi.] It is not my intention to detain the reader by expatiating on the variety or the importance the subject which I have undertaken to treat; since the merit the choice would serve to render the weakness the execution still more apparent and still less excusable But as I have presumed to lay before the Public a first volume only1 the History the Decline and Fall the Roman Empire it will perhaps be expected that I should explain in a few words the nature and limits my general plan The memorable series revolutions which in the course about thirteen centuries gradually undermined and at length destroyed the solid fabric human greatness may with some propriety be divided into the three following periods: According to the more accurate Dionysius the city itself was only an hundred stadia or twelve miles and a half from Rome; though some outposts might be advanced farther on the side Etruria Nardini in a pressed treatise has combated the popular opinion and the authority two popes and has removed Veii from Cività Castellana to a little spot called Isola in the midway between Rome and the lake Bracciano [It is now known to be Isola Farnese.] 98 See the 4th [c 59] and 5th [c 7] books Livy In the Roman census property power and taxation were commensurate with. Earl Hugh & his [second] wife had. Hyde de Relig Pers c 8 Notwithstanding all their distinctions and protestations which seem sincere enough their tyrants the Mahometans have constantly stigmatised them as idolatrous worshippers the fire 19 See the Sadder the smallest part which consists moral precepts The ceremonies enjoined are infinite and trifling Fifteen genuflexions prayers &c were required whenever the devout Persian cut his nails or made water; or as ten as he put on the sacred girdle Sadder Art 14 50 60 20 Zendavesta tom i p 224 and Précis du Système de Zoroastre. See Philostrat l ii p 548 560 [3 sqq.] Pausanias l i [19] and vii 20 The life Herodes in the xxxth volume the Memoirs the Academy Inscriptions 75 It is particularly remarked Athens by Dicæarchus de Statu Græciæ p 8 inter Geographos Minores edit Hudson. Tacit Annal iv 55 I have taken some pains in consulting and comparing modern travellers with regard to the fate those eleven cities Asia; seven or eight are totally destroyed Hypæpe Tralles Laodicea Ilium Halicarnassus Miletus Ephesus and we may add Sardis the remaining three Pergamus is a straggling village two or three thousand inhabitants; Magnesia under the name Guzel-hissar a town some consequence; and Smyrna a great city peopled by a hundred thousand souls But even at Smyrna while the Franks have maintained commerce the Turks have ruined the arts 85 See a very exact and pleasing description the ruins Laodicea in Chandler’s Travels through Asia Minor p 225 &c. Eutropius and Sextus Rufus have endeavoured to perpetuate the illusion See a very sensible dissertation M Freret in the Académie des Inscriptions tom xxi p 55 22 Dion Cassius l lxviii [18 et sqq.]; and the Abbreviators 23 [117 ad A triumph in honour this eastern expedition was celebrated after the emperor’s death On inscriptions he is called Divus Traianus Parthicus instead Divus Traianus (Schiller Gesch der röm Kaiser. Duke Pierre I & his first wife had three children:     Dion l lxxiv p 1244 [4] who assisted at the ceremony as a senator gives a most pompous description it 43 Herodian l iii p 112 [7 7] 44 Though it is not most assuredly the intention Lucan to exalt the character Cæsar yet the idea he gives that hero in the tenth book the Pharsalia where he describes him at the same time making love to Cleopatra sustaining a siege against the power Egypt and conversing with the sages the country is in reality the noblest panegyric. 2 Sardinia and Corsica 231 bc Senatorial in 27 bc but became imperial in 6 ad Again senatorial under Nero; once more imperial under Vespasian and governed by a procurator et praeses (Given to senate again by M Aurelius but resumed by Commodus.) 3 Hispania citerior or Tarraconensis 197 bc; imperial (Divided into 3 dioceses each under a leg Augusti.) Veget de Re Militari l ii c 6 His positive testimony which might be supported by circumstantial evidence ought surely to silence those critics who refuse the Imperial legion its proper body cavalry [But his testimony must be treated with great caution.] 53 See Livy almost throughout particularly xlii 61 54 Plin Hist Natur xxxiii 2 The true sense that very curious passage was first discovered and illustrated by M de Beaufort République Romaine l. John Earl Surrey & his [second] wife had. The life Alexander in the Augustan History is the mere idea a perfect prince an awkward imitation the Cyropædia The account his reign as given by Herodian is rational and moderate consistent with the general history the age; and in some the most invidious particulars confirmed by the decisive fragments Dion Yet from a very paltry prejudice the greater number our modern writers abuse Herodian and copy the Augustan History See Mess de Tillemont and Wotton From the opposite prejudice the emperor Julian (in Cæsarib p 315) dwells with a visible satisfaction on the effeminate weakness the Syrian and the ridiculous avarice his mother. Earl Simon & his wife had four children: The divine institution tithes exhibits a singular instance conformity between the law Zoroaster and that Moses Those who cannot otherwise account for it may suppose if they please that the Magi the latter times inserted so useful an interpolation into the writings their prophet 25 Sadder Art 8 26 Plato in Alcibiad [37] 27 Pliny (Hist Natur l xxx c 1) observes that magic held mankind by the triple chain religion physic and astronomy. Sueton in Galb c 10 [Legatum se senatus ac pop R pressus est.] 22 [C Pescennius Niger Justus.] 23 Hist August p 76 [xi 7] 24 Herod l ii p 68 [7] The Chronicle John Malala Antioch shows the zealous attachment his countrymen to these festivals which at once gratified their superstition and their love pleasure. This spirited speech translated from the Augustan historian p 156 [xx 11] seems transcribed by him from the original registers the senate 29 Herodian l vii p 244 [6] 30 [Compare Herodian viii 5 5 with Zosimus i 14 and Hist Aug xxi 10.] 31 Herodian l vii p 247 [7] l viii p 277 [6] Hist August p 156-158 [xx 13 sqq.] [See Corp Insc. The tender respect Augustus for a free constitution which he had destroyed can only be explained by an attentive consideration the character that subtle tyrant A cool head an unfeeling heart and a cowardly disposition prompted him at the age nineteen to assume the mask hypocrisy which he never afterwards laid aside With the same hand and probably with the same temper he signed the proscription Cicero and the pardon Cinna His virtues and even his vices were artificial; and according to the various dictates his interest he was at first the enemy and at last the father the Roman When he framed the artful system the Imperial authority his moderation was inspired by his fears He wished to deceive the people by an image civil liberty and the armies by an image civil government. [The successes were due to the abilities Timesitheus Carrhæ and Nisibis which along with Hatra had been taken by Sapor in his invasion 241 ad were recovered and the Roman army having defeated the Persians at Resaina prepared to march on Ctesiphon.] 65 Hist August p 162 [xx 27] Aurelius Victor [Cæsar 27] Porphyrius in Vit Plotin ap Fabricium Biblioth Græc l iv c 36 [c 3 p 103 ed Westermann and Boissonade] The philosopher Plotinus accompanied the army prompted by the love knowledge and by the hope penetrating as far. It has been said that under no Emperor was the Roman army in better condition than under Hadrian Dion Cassius regarded him as the founder what might be almost called a new military system and from his time the character the army becomes more and more “cosmopolitan” (Schiller i 609) 4.: THE ROMAN ARMY — (P 15) In his account the army Gibbon closely followed Vegetius whose statements must be received with caution I may call attention here to a few points. Sueton in August c 28 Augustus built in Rome the temple and forum Mars the Avenger; the Temple Jupiter Tonans in the capitol; that Apollo Palatine with public libraries; the portico and basilica Caius and Lucius; the porticos Livia and Octavia and the theatre Marcellus The example the sovereign was imitated by his ministers and generals; and his friend Agrippa left behind him the immortal monument the Pantheon 68 See Maffei Verona illustrata l. Diodorus Siculus l v p 340 edit Wessel [25] Herodian l vi p 221 [7] Jornandes c 55 On the banks the Danube the wine when brought to table was frequently frozen into great lumps frusta vini Ovid Epist ex Ponto l iv 7 7-10 Virgil Georgic l iii 355 The fact is confirmed by a soldier and a philosopher who had experienced the intense cold Thrace See Xenophon Anabasis l vii p 560 edit Hutchinson [4] [Milman in his note on this passage refers to an incident in the Thirty Years’ War In 1635 “Jan van Werth an Imperialist partisan crossed the Rhine from Heidelberg on the ice with 5000 men and surprised Spires.”] 5 Buffon Historie Naturelle tom. Having illustrated by examples the advantages open to an historian of the present day which were not open to Gibbon for dealing with Gibbon’s theme — improved and refined methods a closer union of philology with history and ampler material — we may go on to consider a general defect in his treatment of the Later Empire and here too exhibit by a few instances progress made in particular departments. (P 3 = 3.) On “bulwarks and boundaries,” note: “Incertum metû an per invidiam (Tacit Annal i 11) Why must rational advice be imputed to a base or foolish motive? To what cause error malevolence or flattery shall I ascribe the unworthy alternative? Was the historian dazzled by Trajan’s conquests?” Earl Waleran & his first wife had two children: According to Lampridius (Hist August p 135 [xviii 60]) Alexander Severus lived twenty-nine years three months and seven days As he was killed March 19 235 he was born December 12 205 and was consequently about this time thirteen years old as his elder cousin might be about seventeen This computation suits much better the history of the young princes than that of Herodian (l v p 181 [3]) who represents them as three years younger; whilst by an opposite error of chronology he lengthens the reign of Elagabalus two years beyond its real duration For the particulars of the conspiracy see Dion l lxxviii p 1339 [31] Herodian l v p 184 [3] [The author’s conclusion is probably mistaken Alexander was born October 1 208 and was thus thirteen and a half years old on his elevation in March 222 (Aur Victor Cæs 24 1) The statement of Lampridius may well be.     The Avesta is a liturgical collection fragments from older texts and is (as M Darmesteter remarks) more like a prayer-book than a Bible It consists two parts which the first (1) contains the Vendidâd the Visperâd and the Yasna The Vendidâd (a corruption vidaêvô-dâtem = “antidemoniac law”) consists religious laws and legendary tales; the Visperâd litanies for sacrifice; and the Yasna litanies also and five hymns in an older dialect than the rest the work The second part (2) is the Small Avesta a collection short prayers Two questions arise: (a) When was the Avesta compiled? (b) What is the origin the older texts which supplied the material?     Exercitus ab exercitando Varro de Linguâ Latinâ l iv [v 87 ed L Müller] Cicero in Tusculan l ii 37 There is room for a very interesting work which should lay open the connection between the languages and manners nations 39 Vegetius l i c 11 and the rest his first book 40 The Pyrrhic Dance is extremely well illustrated by M le Beau in the Académie des Inscriptions tom xxxv p 262 &c That learned academician in a series memoirs has collected all the passages the ancients that relate to the Roman legion. By the slaughter Varus and his three legions See the first book the Annals Tacitus Sueton in August c 23 and Velleius Paterculus l ii c 117 &c Augustus did not receive the melancholy news with all the temper and firmness that might have been expected from his character 4 Tacit Annal l ii [i 11] Dion Cassius l lvi p 832 [33] and the speech Augustus himself in Julian’s Cæsars It receives great light from the learned notes his French translator M Spanheim. Yet Commodus was not as he has been represented a tiger born with an insatiate thirst human blood and capable from his infancy the most inhuman actions.8 Nature had formed him a weak rather than a wicked disposition His simplicity and timidity rendered him the slave his attendants who gradually corrupted his mind His cruelty which at first obeyed the dictates others degenerated into habit and at length became the ruling passion. Basnage Histoire des Juifs l viii c 3 Sozomen l i c 1 [leg 9; this passage refers to the persecution Sapor II.] Manes who suffered an ignominious death may be deemed a Magian as well as a Christian heretic 35 Hyde de Religione Persar. By a most dangerous proclamation the pretended Antoninus every soldier who brought in his ficer’s head became entitled to his private estate as well as to his military commission 57 Dion l lxxviii p 1344 [37] Herodian l v p 186 [4] The battle was fought near the village Immæ about two and twenty miles from Antioch 58 [In this episode the opposition between East and West was probably an important element.] Seriphus was a small rocky island in the Ægean Sea the inhabitants which were despised for their ignorance and obscurity The place Ovid’s exile is well known by his just but unmanly lamentations It should seem that he only received an order to leave Rome in so many days and to transport himself to Tomi Guards and gaolers were unnecessary 68 Under Tiberius a Roman knight attempted to fly to the Parthians He was stopt in the straits Sicily; but so little danger did there appear in the example that the most jealous tyrants disdained to punish it Tacit Annal vi 14 69 Cicero ad Familiares. Those who wish to know more the Avesta and the Zoroastrian religion may be sent to M Darmesteter’s translation the Vendidâd (vol iv the “Sacred Books the East”) and his admirable Introduction to which I am indebted for the summary in this note This translation has superseded those Spiegel and De Harlez; but it must be observed that the students the sacred books the Persians constantly disagree in a very marked way in translation as well as in interpretation 1 Copyright 1877 by R S Peale and J. I have no doubts that this was the sentence originally meant and probably written by Gibbon and have felt no scruple in extirpating the inveterate error from. Tuncque primum tres præfecti prætorio fuere: inter quos libertinus From some remains modesty Cleander declined the title whilst he assumed the powers Prætorian Prefect As the other freedmen were styled from their several departments a rationibus ab epistolis Cleander called himself a pugions as entrusted with the defence his master’s person Salmasius and Casaubon seem to have talked very idly upon this passage. Dion l lxxvi p 1280 &c [12] Herodian l iii p 132 &c [14] 15 Ossian’s Poems vol. Earl William & his wife had two children: Dion Cassius l lxxvii p 1304 1312 [18 and lxxviii 4] 7 See a Dissertation Menage at the end his edition Diogenes Laertius de Fœminis Philosophis 8 Dion l lxxvi p 1285 [16] Aurelius Victor [Cæsar. Earl Henry & his wife had three children: Dion Cassius l lxvii [6 et sqq.] 16 Herodotus l iv c 94 Julian in the Cæsars with Spanheim’s observations 17 Plin Epist viii 9 18 Dion Cassius l lxviii p 1123 1131 [6 and 14] Julian in Cæsaribus Eutropius viii 2 6 Aurelius Victor in Epitome [See Appendix 3.] M Schlumberger followed up this work by an admirable monograph on Nicephorus Phocas luxuriously illustrated; and we are looking forward to the appearance a companion work on Basil II 12 The first volume Mr Pelham’s history the Empire which is expected shortly will show when compared with Merivale how completely our knowledge Roman institutions has been transformed within a very recent period 13 This has been best pointed out by C Neumann. 31 Bithynia and Pontus 74 and 65 bc; senatorial 27 bc became under Hadrian imperial 32 Galatia (including Pontus Polemoniacus) 25 bc imperial; united twice and twice severed from Cappadocia; finally separated by Trajan and placed under a praetorian legatus 33 Cappadocia (including Lesser Armenia) 17 ad imperial; (procuratorial till Vespasian 70 ad gave it a consular legatus). See those evolutions admirably well explained by M Guichard Nouveaux Mémoires tom i p 141-234 67 Tacitus (Annal iv 5) has given us a state the legions under Tiberius; and Dion Cassius (l lv p 794 [23]) under Alexander Severus I have endeavoured to fix on the proper medium between these two periods See likewise Lipsius de Magnitudine Romanâ l i c 4 5 [On the author’s procedure here see Appendix 4 On the Prætorian Guards see below p 133.] 68 The Romans tried to disguise by the pretence religious awe their ignorance and terror See Tacit Germania. Sororibus suis constupratis Ipsas concubinas suas sub oculis suis stuprari jubebat Nec irruentium in se juvenum carebat infamiâ omni parte corporis atque ore in sexum utrumque pollutus Hist August p 47 [vii 5] 32 The African lions when pressed by hunger infested the open villages and cultivated country; and they infested them with impunity The royal beast was reserved for the pleasures the emperor and the capital; and the unfortunate peasant who killed one them though in his own defence incurred a very heavy penalty This extraordinary game law was mitigated by Honorius and finally repealed by Justinian Codex Theodos tom v p 92 et Comment Gothred. The Greek and the French versions were published by Buchon uncritically A new edition the Greek text is promised by Dr John Schmitt 27 The history mediæval Athens has been recorded at length in an attractive work by Gregorovius the counterpart his great history mediæval Rome. Lætus conducted without delay his new emperor to the camp the Prætorians diffusing at the same time through the city a seasonable report that Commodus died suddenly an apoplexy; and that the virtuous Pertinax had already succeeded to the throne The guards were rather surprised than pleased with the suspicious death a prince whose Edition: current; Page: [125] indulgence and liberality they alone had experienced; but the emergency the occasion the authority their prefect the reputation Pertinax and the clamours the people obliged them to stifle their secret discontents to accept the donative promised by the new emperor to swear allegiance to him and with joyful acclamations and laurels in their hands to conduct him to the senate-house that the military consent might be ratified by the civil authority. 22 Moesia inferior { Moesia 6 ad an imperial province was broken up into the two Moesias by Domitian under consular legati 23 Dacia Porolissensis { Dacia 107 ad was at first one province (imperial) Hadrian broke it up into two (superior and inferior) Marcus made a new triple division (not later than 168 ad not earlier than 158 ad) and placed the provinces under consular legati. Dion Cassius (l liii p 703-714 [12-18]) has given a very loose and partial sketch the Imperial system To illustrate and ten to correct him I have mentioned Tacitus examined Suetonius and consulted the following moderns: the Abbé de la Bléterie in the Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions tom xix xxi xxiv xxv xxvii Beaufort République Romaine tom i p 255-275 The dissertations Noodt and Gronovius de lege Regia: printed at Leyden in the year 1731 Gravina de Imperio Romano p 479-544 his Opuscula Maffei Verona Illustrata i p 245 &c. The Historia Augusta is a composite work in which six several authors who lived and wrote in the reigns Diocletian and Constantine had a hand These authors however were not collaborators and did not write with a view to the production the work which we possess The Historia Augusta seems in the light recent criticism to have been an eclectic compilation from a number different originally independent histories Ælius Spartianus wrote by the wish the Emperor Diocletian whom he ten addresses a series Imperial biographies (including Cæsars as well as Augusti) from the death the dictator (post Cæsarem dictatorem; ii 7 5) He came down at least as far as Caracalla.     Claudius Nero and Domitian A hope is expressed by Pomponius Mela l iii c 6 (he wrote under Claudius) that by the success the Roman arms the island and its savage inhabitants would soon be better known It is amusing enough to peruse such passages in the midst London 8 See the admirable abridgment given by Tacitus in the Life Agricola and copiously though perhaps not completely illustrated by our own antiquarians Camden and Horsley [See Appendix 2.]     A few special monographs (in addition to those referred to elsewhere) may be mentioned here Hundertmark de Imperatore Pertinace Höfner Untersuchungen zur Gesch des Kaisers L Septimius Severus; A de Ceuleneer Essai sur la vie et la règne de Septime Sevère; Wirth Quaestiones Severianae A Duncker Claudius Gothicus Preuss Kaiser Diokletian und seine Zeit; Vogel Der Kaiser Diokletian. [Schiller is possibly right in his view (i 751) that military not financial considerations were the chief motive in determining Caracalla’s edict Italy was no longer able to recruit the legions and the auxilia were gradually taking their place while the Germans were stepping into the place the auxilia The extension citizenship was also expedient in face the barbarians who were pressing into the empire.] Other authorities which though referred to in the present volume are more concerned with the history subsequent events such as Ammianus Marcellinus the Anonymous known as Anon Valesianus Eusebius Zosimus will be noticed in the Appendix to. Aurelius Victor Eutrop ix 2 Orosius vii 20 Ammianus Marcellinus xxiii 5 Zosimus l i p 19 [19] Philip who was a native Bostra was about forty years age [His name was M Julius Philippus.] 69 Can the epithet Aristocracy be applied with any propriety to the government Algiers? Every military government floats between the extremes absolute monarchy and wild democracy 70 The military republic the Mamelukes in Egypt would have afforded M de Montesquieu (see Considérations sur la Grandeur et la Décadence des Romains c 16) a juster and more noble parallel. M Bouchaud in his treatise de l’Impôt chez les Romains has transcribed this catalogue from the Digest and attempts to illustrate it by a very prolix commentary 118 [It was imposed in Rome and Italy but cannot be proved for the provinces.] 119 Tacit Annal i 78 Two years afterwards the reduction the poor kingdom Cappadocia gave Tiberius a pretence for diminishing the excise to one half; but the relief was a very short duration. Ad 217 8th March [8th April; see Clinton ad ann.] 44 Dion l lxxviii p 1312 [5 4] Herodian l iv p 168 [13] [Gibbon does not give this emperor due credit for his ability as an administrator (carrying out his father’s policy) and his important military works.] 45 [Those who have studied the question say that Caracalla’s development the phalanx was under the circumstances the empire a benefit and a necessity Hadrian had already pointed the way to this tactical change.] Duke Arthur II & his first wife had three children: [This list the provinces is incomplete For full list see Appendix 6.] 73 [Bætica was divided from Tarraconensis by the saltus Castulonensis.] 74 See Strabo l ii [Rather iii p 166.] It is natural enough to suppose that Arragon is derived from Tarraconensis and several moderns who have written in Latin use those words as synonymous It is however certain that the Arragon a little stream which falls from the Pyrenees into the Ebro first gave its name to a country and gradually to a kingdom See d’Anville Géographie du Moyen. He had reason to tremble On the throne the world he found himself without a friend and even without an adherent The guards themselves were ashamed the prince whom their avarice had persuaded them to accept; nor was there a citizen who did not consider his elevation with horror as the last insult on the Roman name The nobility whose conspicuous station and ample possessions exacted the strictest caution dissembled their sentiments and met the affected civility the emperor with smiles complacency and pressions duty But the people secure in their numbers and obscurity gave a free vent to their passions The streets and public places Rome resounded with clamours and imprecations The enraged multitude affronted the person Julian rejected his liberality and conscious the impotence their own resentment they called aloud on the legions the frontiers to assert the violated majesty the Roman empire. We have attempted to explain the spirit which moderated and the strength which supported the power Hadrian and the Antonines We shall now endeavour with clearness and precision to describe the provinces once united under their sway but at present divided into so many independent and hostile (E) The cohortes urbanae had their headquarters in the Forum Suarium (Pig-market) at Rome They were at first four in number one thousand men each until the time Claudius who seems to have increased the number to six; Vespasian perhaps added another Some these regiments were sometimes stationed elsewhere; for example at Lyons Ostia Puteoli See further article Exercitus in Smith’s Dictionary Antiquities new edition 5.: THE ROMAN NAVY — (P 23) The fleets Ravenna and Misenum were called the classes praetoriae a fitting name as they were the naval guards the Emperor as long as he resided at. Earl Hugh had three illegitimate children by unknown mistresses: Chap xlviii ad init where a full statement his view the later Empire will be found 15 I need not repeat here what I have said elsewhere and what many others have said (recently Mr Frederic Harrison in two essays in his volume entitled The Meaning History) as to the various services the Empire to Europe They are beginning to be generally recognised and they have been brought out in Mr C W Oman’s brief and skilful sketch the “Byzantine Empire” (1892). According to Dr Keating (History Ireland p 13 14) the giant Partholanus who was the son Seara the son Esra the son Sru the son Framant the son Fathaclan the son Magog the son Japhet the son Noah landed on the coast Munster the 14th day May in the year the world one thousand nine hundred and seventy-eight Though he succeeded in his great enterprise the loose behaviour his wife rendered his domestic life very unhappy and provoked him to such a degree that he killed — her favourite greyhound This as the learned historian very properly observes was the first instance female falsehood and infidelity ever known in Ireland 15 Genealogical History the Tartars by Abulghazi Bahadur Khan. Duke Alain II & his second wife had. Hist August p 62 63 [ix 5 6] 38 Victor [Cæs 19] and Eutropius viii 17 mention a combat near the Milvian Bridge the Ponte Molle unknown to the better and more ancient writers 39 Dion l lxxiii p 1240 [17] Herodian l ii p 83 [12] Hist August p 63 [ix 9]. But when the last enclosure the Roman constitution was trampled down by Caracalla the separation possessions gradually succeeded to the distinction ranks The more polished citizens the internal provinces were alone qualified to act as lawyers and magistrates The rougher trade arms was abandoned to the peasants and barbarians the frontiers who knew no country but their camp no science but that war no civil laws and scarcely those military discipline With bloody hands savage manners and desperate resolutions they sometimes guarded but much tener subverted the throne the emperors. The various forms government which have prevailed in the world an hereditary monarchy seems to present the fairest scope for ridicule Is it possible to relate without an indignant smile that on the father’s decease the property a nation like that a drove oxen descends to his infant son as yet unknown to mankind and to himself and that the bravest warriors and the wisest statesmen relinquishing their natural right to empire approach the royal cradle with bended knees and protestations inviolable fidelity? Satire and declamation may paint these obvious topics in the most dazzling colours but our more serious thoughts will respect a useful prejudice that establishes a rule succession independent the passions mankind; and we shall cheerfully acquiesce in any expedient which deprives the multitude the dangerous and indeed the ideal power giving themselves a master.     [On agriculture.] 18 In a note upon the Augustan History Casaubon has collected a number particulars concerning these celebrated brothers See p 94 his learned commentary. M Guichard Mémoires Militaires tom i c 4 and Nouveaux Mémoires tom i p 293-311 has treated the subject like a scholar and an ficer 50 See Arrian’s Tactics [12] With the true partiality a Greek Arrian rather chose to describe the phalanx which he had read than the legions which he had commanded 51 Polyb l xvii [xviii 15].

The Marcomanni a colony who from the banks the Rhine occupied Bohemia and Moravia had once erected a great and formidable monarchy under their king Maroboduus See Strabo l vii [290] Vell Pat ii 105 [108] Tacit Annal ii 63 85 Mr Wotton (History Rome p 166) increases the prohibition to ten times the distance His reasoning is specious but not conclusive Five miles were sufficient for a fortified barrier 86 Dion l lxxi [11 et sqq.]. The modern bishopric Liege This soldier probably belonged to the Batavian horse-guards who were mostly raised in the Duchy Gueldres and the neighbourhood and were distinguished by their valour and by the boldness with which they swam their horses across the broadest and most rapid rivers Tacit Hist iv 12 Dion l lv p 797 [24] Lipsius de magnitudine Romanâ l i c 4 61 Dion l lxxiii p 1232 [10] Herodian l ii p 60 [5] Hist August p 58 [viii 11] Victor in Epitom and in Cæsarib Eutropius.   [Three] siblings parents. The constitution and history the Principate and the provincial government the early Emperors have been placed on an entirely new basis by Mommsen and his The Römisches Staatsrecht is a fabric for whose rearing was needed not only improved scholarship but an extensive collection epigraphic material The Corpus Latin Inscriptions is the keystone. The fleet at (1) Forum Julium was discontinued soon after the time Augustus The other lesser naval stations under the Empire were (2) Seleucia for the classis Syriaca; (3) Alexandria for the classis Augusta Alexandreas; (4) the Island Carpathos; (5) at the beginning the fifth century Aquileia for the classis Venetum Besides these there were (6) the classis Pontica stationed in the Euxine or in the Propontis and (7) the classis Britannica both mentioned in the author’s text There were also fleets on the three great rivers the Empire; (8) the classis Germanica on the Rhine; (9) the classis Pannonica and Moesica on the Danube; and (10) a fleet on the Euphrates (mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus. The adulteress was whipped through the village Neither wealth nor beauty could inspire compassion or procure her a second husband [Tacit Germ.] 18 19 58 Ovid employs two hundred lines in the research places the most favourable to love Above all he considers the theatre as the best adapted to collect the beauties Rome and to melt them into tenderness and sensuality 59 Tacit. Manilius the confidential secretary Avidius Cassius was discovered after he had lain concealed for several years The emperor nobly relieved the public anxiety by refusing to see him and burning his papers without opening them Dion Cassius l lxxii p 1209 15 See Maffei degli Amphitheatri p 126 16 Dio l lxxii p 1205 [4] Herodian l i p 16 [8] Hist August p 46 [vii 4] [The would-be assassin was Claudius Pompeianus Quintianus Lucilla’s stepson.] The distinction between colonies and municipal towns and the history ius Latinum are explained briefly in the following passage the Student’s Roman Empire pp 76 77:— Augustus exercised nine annual consulships without interruption He then most artfully refused that magistracy as well as the dictatorship absented himself from Rome and waited till the fatal effects tumult and faction forced the senate to invest him with a perpetual consulship Augustus as well as his successors affected however to conceal so invidious a title [See Appendix 10 p 318.] 17 [But observe that the tribunate (as the author afterwards points out) was not discontinued though overshadowed by the tribunicia potestas the emperor it lost all political significance.] 18 [See Appendix 10.] Dion Cassius l lxxx [3] Herodian l vi p 207 [2] Abulpharagius Dynast p 80 [The battle was fought at Hormuz between Behbehan and Schuschter The approved spelling Artaban is Ardevân He was the fifth Parthian king that name.] 8 See Moses Chorenensis l ii c 65-71 9 [Ardeshîr IV the small kingdom Persis became when he overthrew the Parthian monarchy Ardeshîr I the great kingdom Persia His title was “King Kings Eran and Turan.” The Parthians were not completely quelled though they had lost their king till. For a full account Vulgär-griechische Litterature I may refer to Krumbacher’s Gesch der Byz Litt Here it is unnecessary to do more than indicate its existence and importance I may add that the historian cannot neglect the development the language for which these romances (and other documents) furnish ample data Here the Greeks themselves have an advantage and scholars like Hatzidakês Psicharês and Jannarês are in this field doing work the best kind 29 Fallmerayer’s thesis that there was no pure Hellenic blood in Greece was triumphantly refuted No one denies that there was a large Slavonic element in the country parts especially the Peloponnesus. Earl William & his wife had four children: Tacit Annal xiii 31 115 See Pliny (Hist Natur l vi c 28 l xii c 18) His observation that the Indian commodities were sold at Rome at a hundred times their original price may give us some notion the produce the customs since that original price amounted to more than eight hundred thousand pounds 116 The ancients were unacquainted with the art cutting diamonds. Two consuls were created on the Calends January; but in the course the year others were substituted in their places till the annual number seems to have amounted to no less than twelve The prætors were usually sixteen or eighteen (Lipsius in Excurs D ad Tacit Annal l i.) I have not mentioned the Ædiles or Quæstors ficers the police or revenue easily adapt themselves to any form government In the time Nero the tribunes legally possessed the right intercession though it might be dangerous to exercise it (Tacit Annal xvi 26) In the time Trajan it was doubtful whether the tribuneship was an fice or a name (Plin Epist 123) [But it still existed in the 5th century being mentioned in the Theodosian Code.] 21 [See. It was the principal distinction from the Sarmatians who generally fought on horseback 75 The relation this enterprise occupies a great part the fourth and fifth books the History Tacitus and is more remarkable for its eloquence than perspicuity Sir Henry Saville has observed several inaccuracies 76 Tacit Hist iv 13 Like them he had lost. Two centuries after the establishment monarchy the emperor Marcus Antoninus recommends the character Brutus as a perfect model Roman virtue 35 It is much to be regretted that we have lost the part Tacitus which treated that transaction We are forced to content ourselves with the popular rumours Josephus and the imperfect hints Dion and Suetonius. Plutarch in Marc Anton [66] And yet if we may credit Orosius these monstrous castles were no more than ten feet above the water vi 19 [They had two ranks oars.] 70 See Lipsius de Magnitud Rom l i c 5 The sixteen last chapters Vegetius relate to naval affairs [See Appendix 5.] 71 Voltaire Siècle de Louis XIV c 29 It must however be remembered that France still feels that extraordinary effort. Earl Miles & his wife had eight children: In the room Elagabalus his cousin Alexander was raised to the throne by the Prætorian guards His relation to the family Severus whose name he assumed,75 was the same as that his predecessor; his virtue and his danger had already endeared him to the Romans and the eager liberality the senate conferred upon him in one day the various titles and powers the Imperial But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth only seventeen years age the reins government were in the hands two women his mother Mamæa and Mæsa his grandmother After the death the latter who survived but a short time the elevation Alexander Mamæa remained the sole regent her son and the empire. [Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainya The law was revealed by Ahura Mazda to Zarathustra (Zoroaster).] 16 The modern Parsees (and in some degree the Sadder) exalt Ormusd into the first and omnipotent cause whilst they degrade Ahriman into an inferior but rebellious spirit Their desire pleasing the Mahometans may have contributed to refine their theological system [The doctrine the future triumph Ormusd is not in the Zendavesta.] 17 Herodotus l i c 131 But Dr Prideaux thinks with reason that the use temples was afterwards permitted in the Magian religion. 26 Thracia 46 ad imperial (at first under a procurator but from Trajan forward) under a legatus 27 Macedonia 146 bc; senatorial in 27 bc; from Tiberius to Claudius imperial and united with Achaia; after Claudius senatorial. Hist August p 48 27 Herodian l i p 28 [12] Dion l lxxii p 1215 [14] The latter says that two thousand persons died every day at Rome during a considerable length time [The pestilence was probably a new outbreak the same plague which had ravaged the Empire under Marcus.] At present I shall content myself with a single observation The Biographers who under the reigns Diocletian and Constantine composed or rather compiled the lives the emperors from Hadrian to the sons Carus are usually mentioned under the names Ælius Spartianus Julius Capitolinus Ælius Lampridius Vulcatius Gallicanus Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus But there is so much perplexity in the titles the MSS and so many disputes have arisen among the critics (see Fabricius Biblioth Latin l iii c 6) concerning their number their names and their respective property that for the most part I have quoted them without distinction under the general and well-known title the Augustan History. One these dear-bought promotions occasioned a current bon mot that Julius Solon was banished into the senate [In one year there were no less than twenty-five consuls.] 24 Dion (l lxxii p 1213 [12]) observes that no freedman had possessed riches equal to those Cleander The fortune Pallas amounted however to upwards five and twenty hundred thousand pounds — ter millies 25 Dion l lxxii p 1213 [12] Herodian l i p 29 [12] Hist August p 52 [vii 17] These baths were situated near the Porta Capena See Nardini Roma Antica. In some other cases I have corrected the text in this and the following volume (1) vol i p 69 n 109; Sumelpur for Jumelpur see Appendix 9 (2) vol ii p 29 l 8 from top; the reading the received text “public” is surely a printer’s error which escaped detection for “republic,” which I have ventured to restore (3) vol ii p 55 l 6 from foot I have assumed an instance “lipography.” (4) vol ii n 35 “Lycius” had been already corrected (see Smith’s ed.) to “Lydius.” Probably Gibbon had his Zosimus open before him when he wrote this note and his pen traced Lycius because Lycia happened to occur in the very next line his authority I have followed Sir William Smith’s precedent in dealing freely with the punctuation and in modernising the spelling a. Duke Pierre & his second wife had. From one curious inaccuracy which neither critics nor editors seem to have observed he must I think be acquitted In his account the disturbances in Africa and Egypt in the reign Diocletian we meet the following passage (vol ii chap xiii p 160): — “Julian had assumed the purple at Carthage Achilleus at Alexandria and even the Blemmyes renewed or Edition: current; Page: [l] rather continued their incursions into the Upper Egypt.” Cassius Dio Coccelanus belonged to a good family the Bithynian town Nicæa His father Apronianus had been entrusted with the governorships Dalmatia and Cilicia and he himself achieved a more distinguished career in the civil service Arriving at Rome in the year in which the Emperor Marcus died (180) he advanced step by step to the prætorship (193) and subsequently held the fice consul twice (see lxxiii 12; lxxx 2; Corp Insc Lat iii 5587) He was prefect (ἐπεστάτησα lxxix 7) Pergamum and Smyrna in the reign Macrinus; and under Alexander Severus was at first proconsul Africa and was afterwards transferred to Dalmatia and thence to Upper Pannonia (lxxx 1) After the year 229 he retired from public life owing to an ailment his feet (lxxx 5). Before an assembly thus modelled and prepared Augustus pronounced a studied oration which displayed his patriotism and disguised his ambition “He lamented yet excused his past conduct Filial piety had required at his hands the revenge his father’s murder; the humanity his own nature had sometimes given way to the stern laws necessity and to a forced connection with two unworthy colleagues: as long as Antony lived the republic forbade him to abandon her to a degenerate Roman and a barbarian queen He was now at liberty to satisfy his duty and his inclination He solemnly restored the senate and people to all their ancient rights; and wished only to mingle with the crowd his fellow-citizens and to share the blessings which he had obtained for his country.”6 See the fate Syracuse Tarentum Ambracia Corinth &c the conduct Verres in Cicero (Actio ii Orat 4) and the usual practice governors in the viiith Satire Juvenal 11 Sueton in Claud [25] — Plin Hist Nat xxx i 12 Pelloutier Histoire des Celtes tom vi p 230-252 13 Seneca Consolat ad Helviam p 74 [6]. Earl Thomas & his wife had ten children: I The first these periods may be traced from the age Trajan and the Antonines when the Roman monarchy having attained its full strength and maturity began to verge towards its decline; and will extend to the subversion the Western Empire by the barbarians Germany and Scythia the rude ancestors the most polished nations modern Europe This extraordinary revolution which subjected Rome to the power a Gothic conqueror was completed about the beginning the sixth century. They are frequently mentioned by Cæsar The Abbé Dubos attempts with very little success to prove that the assemblies Gaul were continued under the emperors Histoire de l’Etablissement de la Monarchie Françoise l i c 4 [These assemblies did exist in Gaul as well as in other provinces See E Carette Les assemblées provinciales de la Gaule romaine 1895.] 32 Seneca in Consolat ad Helviam. [M Clodius Pupienus Maximus (on coins Pupienus in African inscriptions Pupienius).] 38 Zonaras l xii p 622 [17] But little dependence is to be had on the authority a modern Greek so grossly ignorant the history the third century that he creates several imaginary emperors and confounds those who really existed 39 Herodian l vii p 256 [10] supposes that the senate was at first convoked in the Capitol and is very eloquent on the occasion The Augustan History p 166 [xxi 3] seems much more authentic. During the three first years his reign the forms and even the spirit the old administration were maintained by those faithful counsellors to whom Marcus had recommended his son and for whose wisdom and integrity Commodus still entertained a reluctant esteem The young prince and his prligate favourites revelled in all the licence sovereign power; but his hands were yet unstained with blood; and he had even displayed a generosity sentiment which might perhaps have ripened into solid A fatal incident decided his fluctuating character. [M Aurelius Severus Alexander.] 76 Hist August p 114 [xvii 1] By this unusual precipitation the senate meant to confound the hopes pretenders and prevent the factions the armies 77 Metellus Numidicus the censor acknowledged to the Roman people in a public oration that had kind Nature allowed us to exist without the help woman we should be delivered from a very troublesome companion; and he could recommend matrimony only as the sacrifice private pleasure to public duty Aulus Gellius. History ROME VOLUME I new york FRED DeFAU & COMPANY publishers In the Chronica Minora (M.G.H.) vol i 512 sqq See vol ii p 360 6 Gibbon had a notion this but did not apply it methodically See in vol ii p 227 note 59: “but those modern Greeks had the opportunity consulting many writers which have since been lost.” And see in general his Preface to the fourth volume the quarto ed. D’herbelot Bibliothèque Orientale au mot Ardshir We may observe that after an ancient period fables and a long interval darkness the modern histories Persia begin to assume an air truth with the dynasty the Sassanides 67 Herodian l vi p 214 [5] Ammianus Marcellinus l xxiii c 6 Some differences may be observed between the two historians the natural effects the changes produced by a century and a half 68 The Persians are still the most skilful horsemen and their horses the finest in.       For a short account the Imperial constitution I may refer to Mr Pelham’s article on the Principate in Smith’s Dictionary Antiquities and to the Student’s Roman Empire chaps ii and iii Here it will be enough to draw attention to a few important points in which Gibbon’s statements need correction or call for precision (1) P 76 — “He was elected censor.” Spartianus stens the most odious parts the character and elevation Julian 12 Dion Cassius at that time prætor had been a personal enemy to Julian l lxxiii p 1235 [12] 13 Hist August p 61 [ix 3 3] We learn from thence one curious circumstance that the new emperor whatever had been his birth was immediately aggregated to the number Patrician families [His imperial name was M Didius Severus Julianus His wife Mallia Scantilla and his daughter Didia Clara received the title Augusta (Hist Aug ix 3) Pertinax had declined that honour for his consort.] The tributes (properly so called) were not farmed since the good princes ten remitted many millions arrears 131 The situation the new citizens is minutely described by Pliny (Panegyric c 37 38 39) Trajan published a law very much in their favour 132 Dion l lxxvii p 1295 [9] [The tax was reduced again to 5 per cent by Macrinus By the sixth century it had altogether disappeared.] Cæsar Diodorus and Lucan seem to ascribe this doctrine to the Gauls but M Pelloutier (Histoire des Celtes l iii c 18) labours to reduce their expressions to a more orthodox sense 71 Concerning this gross but alluring doctrine the Edda see Fable xx in the curious version that book published by M Mallet in his Introduction to the History Denmark. Diligence and accuracy are the only merits which an historical writer may ascribe to himself; if any merit indeed can be assumed from the performance an indispensable duty I may therefore be allowed to say that I have carefully examined all the original materials that could illustrate the subject which I had undertaken to treat Should I ever complete the extensive design which has been sketched out in the preface I might perhaps conclude it with a critical account the authors consulted during the progress the whole work; and however such an attempt might incur the censure ostentation I am persuaded that it would be susceptible entertainment as well as information. Among the innumerable monuments architecture constructed Edition: current; Page: [55] by the Romans how many have escaped the notice history how few have resisted the ravages time and barbarism! And yet even the majestic ruins that are still scattered over Italy and the provinces would be sufficient to prove that those countries were once the seat a polite and powerful empire Their greatness alone or their beauty might deserve our attention; but they are rendered more interesting by two important circumstances which connect the agreeable history the arts with the more useful history human manners Many those works were erected at private expense and almost all were intended for public benefit. In return for this imaginary concession Augustus obtained an important privilege which rendered him master Rome and Italy By a dangerous exception to the ancient maxims he was authorised to preserve his military command supported by a numerous body guards even in time peace and in the heart the His command indeed was confined to those citizens who were engaged in the service by the military oath; but such was the propensity the Romans to servitude that the oath was voluntarily taken by the magistrates the senators and the equestrian order till the homage flattery was insensibly converted into an annual and solemn protestation fidelity. Dion l lxxiii p 1235 [13] Hist August p 61 [ix 3 10] I have endeavoured to blend into one consistent story the seeming contradictions the two writers 15 Dion l lxxiii p 1235 [14] 16 [D Clodius Septimus Albinus.] 17 The Postumian and the Cejonian; the former whom was raised to the consulship in the fifth year after its institution. I The Life Geta (xiv.) I have not included in this list The name the author is not given in the MSS.; the editio princeps assigned it to Spartianus There is however a serious objection against attributing it to Spartian in the lack decisive external evidence For it is dedicated to Constantine whereas the Lives written by Spartian are dedicated to Diocletian The fact that Spartian intended to write a life Geta (see xiii 11 1) proves nothing; for there is nothing to show that separate Lives Geta were not also included in the collections Lampridius and Capitolinus and that the compiler the Historia Augusta did not prefer one them to the Geta Spartian. The first volume the quarto which is now contained in the two first volumes the octavo edition 1 The Author as it frequently happens took an inadequate measure his growing work The remainder the first period has filled two volumes in quarto being the third fourth fifth and sixth volumes the octavo edition 1 [Containing chaps i to xxxviii.] 1 [Which in the first quarto edition vol i were printed at the end the volume.] [It is worthy notice that he was not adopted as son by either the Augusti as was usual in such cases.] 41 [On the Rhine against the Germans 235 and 236 on the Danube against Sarmatians and Dacians in 237 Hence the titles Germanicus Dacicus Sarmaticus which his son also bore.] 42 In Herodian l vii p 249 [8] and in the Augustan History [xix 18; xx 14] we have three several orations Maximin to his army on the rebellion Africa and Rome: M de Tillemont has very justly observed that they neither agree with each other nor with truth Histoire des Empereurs tom. The first was Camillus Scribonianus who took up arms in Dalmatia against Claudius and was deserted by his own troops in five days; the second L Antonius in Germany who rebelled against Domitian; and the third Avidius Cassius in the reign M Antoninus The two last reigned but a few months and were cut f by their own adherents We may observe that both Camillus and Cassius coloured their ambition with the design restoring the republic a task said Cassius peculiarly reserved for his name and family 40 Velleius Paterculus lii c 121 Sueton in Tiber c 20 41 Sueton in Tit c 6 Plin in Præfat. By w e h lecky The history Gibbon has been described by John Stuart Mill as the only eighteenth-century history that has withstood nineteenth-century criticism; and whatever objections modern critics may bring against some its parts the substantial justice this verdict will scarcely be contested No other history that century has been so ten reprinted annotated and discussed or remains to the present day a capital authority on the great period which it treats As a composition it stands unchallenged and conspicuous among the masterpieces English literature while as a history it covers a space more than twelve hundred years including some the most momentous events in the annals mankind. This universal joy is well described (from the medals as well as historians) by Mr Wotton Hist Rome p 192 193 [The terms the peace were that the Marcomanni and Quadi should not approach nearer than 150 Roman miles to the Danube should pay a tribute corn and furnish a contingent recruits and should not make war on the Vandals Buri and Jazyges who were Roman subjects The treaty was a good one if Commodus had been strong enough to insist on its execution Its articles were not carried out yet the peace was not disturbed.]     The cruelty follies and murder Commodus — Election Pertinax — his attempts to reform the State — his assassination by the Prætorian Guards     Ibid l lxxvi p 1284 [15] M Wotton (Hist Rome p 330) suspects that this maxim was invented by Caracalla himself and attributed to his father. Duke Jean II & his wife had six children:     It is said that Papinian was himself a relation the empress Julia 33 Tacit Annal xiv 2 34 Hist August p 88 [xiii 8 5] 35 With regard to Papinian see Heineccius’s Historia Juris Romani l 330 &c [The true cause Papinian’s execution was probably that he was highly unpopular with the soldiers whose wishes Caracalla was always ready to humour.] Hyde and Prideaux working up the Persian legends and their own conjectures into a very agreeable story represent Zoroaster as a contemporary Darius Hystaspis But it is sufficient to observe that the Greek writers who lived almost in the same age agree in placing the era Zoroaster many hundred or even thousand years before their own time The judicious criticism Mr Moyle perceived and maintained against his uncle Dr Prideaux the antiquity the Persian prophet See his work vol ii [ Zarathustra or Zoroaster himself we know nothing All the stories about him are mere fables; and it cannot be determined whether he was a god made into a man or a man who really lived.] Dion Cassius l lv p 799 [25] l lvi p 825 [28] [This tax was introduced 6 ad] 121 The sum is only fixed by conjecture 122 As the Roman law subsisted for many ages the Cognati or relations on the mother’s side were not called to the succession This harsh institution was gradually undermined by humanity and finally abolished by Justinian. Dio l lxxii p 1210 [9] Herodian l i p 22 [9] Hist August p 48 [vii 6 1-5] Dion gives a much less odious character Perennis than the other historians His moderation is almost a pledge his veracity [The policy Perennis which caused his fall aimed at ousting the senators from military appointments and substituting men the Equestrian order The intervention the Britannic legions rests on Dion Date 185 cp Müller Hermes 18 p. Tacit Annal vi 42 Plin Hist Nat vi 26 45 This may be inferred from Strabo l xvi p 743 46 That most curious traveller Bernier (see Hist de Voyages tom x.) who followed the camp Aurengzebe from Delhi to Cashmir describes with great accuracy the immense moving city The guard cavalry consisted 35,000 men that infantry 10,000 It was computed that the camp contained 150,000 horses mules and elephants; 50,000 camels 50,000 oxen and between 300,000 and 400,000 persons Almost all Delhi followed the court whose magnificence supported its industry. See a fragment a Decree the Senate conferring on the Emperor Vespasian all the powers granted to his predecessors Augustus Tiberius and Claudius This curious and important monument is published in Gruter’s Inscriptions No ccxlii [Corp Insc Lat vi 930 This document is known as the lex de imperio Vespasiani.] The wide extent territory which is included between the Inn the Danube and the Save — Austria Styria Carinthia Carniola the Lower Hungary and Sclavonia — was known to the ancients under the names Noricum and Pannonia In their original state independence their fierce inhabitants were intimately connected Under the Roman government they were frequently united and they still remain the patrimony a single family They now contain the residence a German prince who styles himself Emperor the Romans and form the centre as well as strength the Austrian power It may not be improper to observe that if we except Bohemia Moravia the northern skirts Austria and a part Hungary between the Theiss and the Danube all the other dominions the house Austria were comprised within the limits the Roman empire. Under the commonwealth a triumph could only be claimed by the general who was authorised to take the Auspices in the name the people By an exact consequence drawn from this principle policy and religion the triumph was reserved to the emperor and his most successful lieutenants were satisfied with some marks distinction which under the name triumphal honours were invented in their favour [On the provincial governors see Appendix 10.] 13 [The prætorian guards and the fleets (at Ravenna and Misenum) were the two exceptions to the principle that Italy was outside the jurisdiction the Imperator.] 17 Noricum 15 bc imperial under a procurator After Marcus under the general the legion Pia (Dion Cassius lv 24 4.) 18 Pannonia superior { After its conquest Pannonia was added to the province Illyria (44 bc) imperial; which was broken up into Pannonia and Dalmatia 10-14 ad; Dalmatia under a consular legatus Pannonia was broken up by Trajan (102-107 ad) into the two Pannoniæ each under a consular legatus (at least under Marcus). It was contained between the two branches the old Rhine as they subsisted before the face the country was changed by art and nature See Cluver German Antiq l iii c 30 37 78 Cæsar de Bell Gall l vi 23 79 They are mentioned however in the ivth and vth centuries by Nazarius Ammianus Claudian &c as a tribe Franks See Cluver Germ Antiq l. Appian in Punicis p 84 108 Diodorus Siculus l v [37] Cadiz was built by the Phœnicians a little more than a thousand years before Christ See Vell Patercul i 2 109 Strabo l iii p 148 110 Plin Hist Natur l xxxiii c 3 He mentions likewise a silver mine in Dalmatia that yielded every day fifty pounds to. (P 7 = 7.) “On their destroyers than on their benefactors.” Note: “The first place in the temple fame is Edition: current; Page: [xliv] due and is assigned to the successful heroes who had struggled with adversity; who after signalising their valour in the deliverance their country have displayed their wisdom and virtue in foundation or government a flourishing state Such men as Moses Cyrus Alfred Gustavus Vasa Henry IV France &c.” Ovid Fast l ii ver 667 See Livy [i 55] and Dionysius Halicarnassus under the reign Tarquin 25 St Augustin is highly delighted with the pro the weakness Terminus and the vanity the Augurs See De Civitate Dei iv 29 [The loss trans-Rhenane Germany was a previous instance the retreat Terminus.] 26 See the Augustan History p 5 [i 9] Jerome’s Chronicle and all the Epitomisers It is somewhat surprising that this memorable event should be omitted by Dion or rather by Xiphilin [See Appendix 3.] “and afterwards from the death Marcus Antoninus.” The following note is entered: “Should I not have given the history that fortunate period which was interposed between two iron ages? Should I not have deduced the decline the Empire from the Civil Wars that ensued after the Fall Nero or even from the tyranny which succeeded the reign Edition: current; Page: [xliii] Augustus? Alas! I should: but what avail is this tardy knowledge? Where error is irreparable repentance is useless.” Chardin tom iii c 1 2 3 [The number seems too high At the present time the population Iran and Turan (including Afghanistan Beluchistan &c.) is said to be between fifteen and sixteen millions.] 42 Dion l xxviii p 1335 [27 Two hundred million sesterces Yet the coins 218 ad boast a Victoria Parthica.] 43 For the precise situation Babylon Seleucia Ctesiphon Modain and Bagdad cities ten confounded with each other see an excellent Geographical Tract M d’Anville in Mém de l’Académie. In the year of Rome 701 the temple of Isis and Serapis was demolished by the order of the senate (Dion Cassius l xl p 252 [47]) and even by the hands of the consul (Valerius Maximus 1 3) [But this passage in Valerius refers to the first demolition in bc 219.] After the death of Cæsar it was restored at the public expense (Dion l xlvii p 501 [15]) When Augustus was in Egypt he revered the majesty of Serapis (Dion l li p 647 [16]); but in the Pomærium of Rome and a mile round it he prohibited the worship of the Egyptian gods (Dion l liii p 697 [2] l liv p 735 [6]) They remained however very fashionable under his reign (Ovid de Art Amand l i [77]) and that of his successor till the justice of Tiberius was provoked to some acts of severity (See Tacit Annal ii 85 Joseph Antiquit l. Eight Roman feet and one third which are equal to above eight English feet as the two measures are to each other in the proportion 967 to 1000 See Graves’s discourse on the Roman foot We are told that Maximin could drink in a day an amphora (or about seven gallons) wine and eat thirty or forty pounds meat He could move a loaded waggon break a horse’s leg with his fist crumble stones in his hand and tear up small trees by the roots See his Life in the Augustan History 50 See the congratulatory letter Claudius Julianus the consul to the two emperors in the Augustan History [xxi 17]. Strabo (l xvi p 780) Pliny the elder (Hist Natur l vi 32 35 [28 29]) and Dion Cassius (l liii p 723 [29] and l liv p 734 [6]) have left us very curious details concerning these wars The Romans made themselves masters Mariaba or Merab a city Arabia Felix well known to the Orientals (see Abulfeda and the Nubian geography p 52) They were arrived within three days’ journey the Spice country the rich object their invasion [See Mommsen Römische Geschichte v p. From such collisions sparks have flown and illuminated dark corners For the Slavs the road was first cleared by Šafarik The development the comparative philology the Indo-Germanic tongues has had its effect; the Slavonic languages have been brought into line chiefly by the lifework Miklosich; and the science is being developed by such scholars as Jagič and Leskien The several countries the Balkan lands have their archæologists and archæological journals; and the difficulty which now meets the historian is not the absence but the plenitude philological and historical literature.     Dion Cassius l lxxii p 1203 [1] 10 According to Tertullian (Apolog c 25) he died at Sirmium But the situation Vindobona or Vienna where both the Victors place his death is better adapted to the operations the war against the Marcomanni and Quadi [Date 17th March 180 ad] 11 Herodian l i p 12 [6] 12 Herodian l. There is no doubt that the tendency to give effect to the maius imperium the princeps in controlling the governors the senatorial provinces and the republican magistrates (consuls) was confirmed and furthered under Severus For example governors senatorial provinces are brought before his court Hist Aug x 4 8 The maius imperium used with reserve by the earlier emperors was one the chief constitutional instruments by which the princeps ousted the senate from the government and converted the “dyarchy” into a monarchy.     The account the last supposed celebration though in an enlightened period history was so very doubtful and obscure that the alternative seems not doubtful When the popish jubilees the copy the secular games were invented by Boniface VIII the crafty pope pretended that he only revived an ancient institution See M le Chais Lettres sur les Jubilés [The celebrations the secular games under Augustus in bc 17 and under Severus in ad 204 are fully discussed by Mommsen in the Ephemeris Epigraphica viii p 225 sqq 1899 (Commentaria ludreum sæcularium quintorum et septimorum) on the basis large fragments the Acta both these festivals discovered in excavations. The Armenian writers: Moses Chorene History Armenia; Agathangelus History the Reign Tiridates and the Preaching Gregory Illuminator (Müller F.H.G v 2; transl by V Langlois); Faustus Byzantium Historical Library (ib.) The credibility Moses Chorene is examined in an important article by Gutschmid in the Berichte der kön sächs Gesellschaft d Wissensch 1876 A Carrière has recently attempted to show (Nouvelles Sources de Molse de Khoren 1893) that the work Moses belongs not to the latter half the fifth but to the beginning the eighth century. A king Thebes in Egypt is mentioned in the Augustan History as an ally and indeed as a personal friend Niger If Spartianus is not as I strongly suspect mistaken he has brought to light a dynasty tributary princes totally unknown to history 26 Dion l lxxiii p 1238 [15] Herod l ii p 67 [7] A verse in everyone’s mouth at that time seems to express the general opinion the three rivals; Optimus est Niger bonus Afer pessimus Albus Hist August p 75 [xi 8] [The verse was originally in Greek but the Latin Spartianus was innocent the false quantity which Gibbon ascribes to it It ran optimus est Fuscus &c.] The face the court corresponded with the forms the administration The emperors if we except those tyrants whose capricious folly violated every law nature and decency disdained that pomp and ceremony which might fend their countrymen but could add nothing to their real power In all the fices life they affected to confound themselves with their subjects and maintained with them an equal intercourse visits and entertainments Their habit their palace their table were suited only to the rank an opulent senator Their family however numerous or splendid was composed entirely their domestic slaves and Augustus or Trajan would have blushed at employing the meanest the Romans in those menial fices which in the household and bedchamber a limited monarch are so eagerly solicited by the proudest nobles Britain. Hyde de Religione Persarum c 19 22 Id c 28 Both Hyde and Prideaux affect to apply to the Magian the terms consecrated to the Christian hierarchy 23 Ammian Marcellin xxiii 6 He informs us (as far as we may credit him) two curious particulars: 1 that the Magi derived some their most secret doctrines from the Indian Brachmans; and 2 that they were a tribe or family as well. Germanicus Suetonius Paulinus and Agricola were checked and recalled in the course their victories Corbulo was put to death Military merit as it is admirably expressed by Tacitus was in the strictest sense the word imperatoria virtus 6 Cæsar himself conceals that ignoble motive; but it is mentioned by Suetonius c 47 The British pearls proved however little value on account their dark and livid colour Tacitus observes with reason (in Agricola c 12) that it was an inherent defect “Ego facilius crediderim naturam margaritis deesse quam nobis avaritiam.” Velleius Paterculus l ii c 24 The president de Montesquieu (in his dialogue between Sylla and Eucrates) expresses the sentiments the dictator in a spirited and even sublime manner 45 [From Sirmium.]     BRittany DUKES brittanY   v4.1 Updated 07 June 2018   RETURN TO INDEX   RETURN TO BRITTANY INTRODUCTION     Plin Hist Natur l xxxiii 47 64 [The subject the population the Roman empire has been discussed in detail in Dureau de la Malle’s Economie Politique on which work Merivale’s investigation is based (History the Romans under the Empire chap 39) Merivale reckons the entire population under Augustus “including both sexes all ages and every class inhabitants,” at eighty-five millions which forty fall to the European forty-five to the Asiatic provinces In the present day the total population these European lands is two and a half times as great Gibbon’s calculation is on any theory far. Hist August p 224 [xxvi 45] A silk garment was considered as an ornament to a woman but as a disgrace to a man 109 The two great pearl fisheries were the same as at present Ormuz and Cape Comorin As well as we can compare ancient with modern geography Rome was supplied with diamonds from the mine Sumelpur in Bengal which is described in the Voyages de Tavernier tom ii p 281 [See Appendix 9.] 110 [But the use aromatic spices among the Romans was by no means confined to these purposes.] Duke Gefroy I & his wife had three children: The view that the name princeps meant princeps senatus held its ground until a few years ago when it was exploded by Mr Pelham Princeps the general non-ficial designation the emperors meant “first the Roman citizens” (princeps civium Romanorum or civitatis) and had nothing to do with the Senate (3) P 80 — “Lieutenants the Emperor.” Claudius raised by the soldiers to the empire was the first who gave a donative He gave quina dena 120l (Sueton in Claud c 10): when Marcus with his colleague Lucius Verus took quiet possession the throne he gave vicena 160l to each the guards Hist August p 25 [iv 7] (Dion lxxiii p 1231 [8].) We may form some idea the amount these sums by Hadrian’s complaint that the promotion a Cæsar had cost him ter millies two millions and a half sterling 7 Cicero de Legibus iii 3 The first book Livy and the second Dionysius Halicarnassus show the authority the people even in the election. Earl John & his wife had six children: [The note the policy Pertinax was the restoration the authority the senate which during the preceding century had been gradually becoming less and less He assumed the title princeps senatus and things looked like a return the system Augustus.] 54 Dion (l lxxiii p 122 [3]) speaks these entertainments as a senator who had supped with the emperor; Capitolinus (Hist August p 58 [viii 12]) like a slave who had received his intelligence from one the scullions. Duxit uxorem filiam Misithei quem causâ eloquentiæ dignum parentelâ suâ putavit; et præfectum statim fecit; post quod non puerile jam et contemptibile videbatur imperium [ib 23] 63 [The army Gordian halted on its way and cleared Thrace barbarian invaders Alans Goths and Sarmatians It has been conjectured that on this occasion Viminacium was made a colonia.] Memnon apud Photium c 33 [c 31; Müller F.H.G iii p 542] Valer Maxim ix 2 Plutarch [Sulla 24] and Dion Cassius [fr 99; vol i p 342 ed Melber] swell the massacre to 150,000 citizens; but I should esteem the smaller number to be more than sufficient 34 Twenty-five colonies were settled in Spain (see Plin Hist Natur iii 3 4 iv 35): and nine in Britain which London Colchester Lincoln Chester Gloucester and Bath still remain considerable cities (see Richard Cirencester p 36 and Whitaker’s History Manchester l i c 3) [The authority Richard Cirencester on Roman Britain is no value See Appendix 2.] Muratori (Annali d’Italia tom ii p 294) thinks the melting the snows suits better with the months June or July than with that February The opinion a man who passed his life between the Alps and the Apennines is undoubtedly great weight; yet I observe 1 That the long winter which Muratori takes advantage is to be found only in the Latin version and not in the Greek text Herodian 2 That the vicissitude suns and rains to which the soldiers Maximin were exposed (Herodian l viii p 277 [5]) denotes the spring rather than the summer We may observe likewise that these several streams as they melted into one composed the Timavus so poetically (in every sense the word) described by Virgil They are about twelve miles to the east Aquileia See Cluver Italia Antiqua tom i p 189 &c. Hamelin & his [first wife] had [one child]: Longin de Sublim c 43 p 229 edit Toll Here too we may say Longinus “his own example strengthens all his laws.” Instead proposing his sentiments with a manly boldness he insinuates them with the most guarded caution puts them into the mouth a friend and as far as we can collect from a corrupted text makes a show refuting them himself [The author calls him “sublime” in allusion to the work On Sublimity παρὶ [Editor: illegible character]ψους But the authorship this able and striking treatise is very doubtful; it is certain that it was not written by Zenobia’s Longinus.] See for instance Cæsar de Bell Gall vi 17 Within a century or two the Gauls themselves applied to their gods the names Mercury Mars Apollo &c 6 The admirable work Cicero de Naturâ Deorum is the best clue we have to guide us through the dark and pround abyss He represents with candour and confutes with subtlety the opinions the philosophers 7 I do not pretend to assert that in this irreligious age the natural terrors superstition dreams omens apparitions &c had lost their efficacy. Procopiana 1891 20 One the author’s points is that Justinian was the real ruler during the nominal reign Justin who was an “ass.” Hence he dates Justinian’s administration (not course his Imperial years) from 518 The consequence this important discovery Haury which he has proved up to the hilt is that the work was written in 550 (not as before believed in 559) — the thirty-second year Justinian’s administration. The virtuous and even the wise princes forbade the senators and knights to embrace this scandalous pression under pain infamy or what was more dreaded by those prligate wretches exile The tyrants allured them to dishonour by threats and rewards Nero once produced in the arena forty senators and sixty knights See Lipsius Saturnalia l ii c 2 He has happily corrected a passage Suetonius in Nerone c 12 39 Lipsius l ii c 7 8 Juvenal in the eighth satire gives a picturesque description this combat. Cæsar formed his legion Alauda Gauls and strangers; but it was during the licence civil war; and after the victory he gave them the freedom the city for their reward [It was really formed bc 55; Suetonius Jul 24.] 34 See Vegetius de Re Militari l i c 2-7 35 The oath service and fidelity to the emperor was annually renewed by the troops on the first January. The series Trebellius Pollio was on a more limited scale It began with the two Philips and embracing all Emperors whether renowned or obscure reached as far as Claudius and his brother Quintillus It was not dedicated to Diocletian but was written in his reign before Constantius Chlorus had been raised to the dignity Augustus that is before 1st May 305 (cp xxiii 7 1 where Claudius is described as the ancestor Constanti Cæsaris nostri; cp too ib 14 3 where Constantinus is an error for Constantius and xxiv 21 7 where we get the prior limit 302) It is probable that the work Pollio was a continuation another series Lives which ended with the accession Philip; and it is possible that this presumable series may have been actually that Spartian or Vulcacius but it is quite uncertain. Appian de Bell civil l i [53] Velleius Paterculus l ii c 15 16 17 26 Mæcenas had advised him to declare by one edict all his subjects citizens But we may justly suspect that the Historian Dion was the author a counsel so much adapted to the practice his own age and so little to that Augustus 27 The senators were obliged to have one-third their own landed property in Italy See Plin l vi ep 19 The qualification was reduced by Marcus to one-fourth Since the reign Trajan Italy had sunk nearer to the level the provinces. [The true name this minister was C Furius Sabinius Aquila Timesitheus His name occurs on inscriptions Gibbon calls him Misitheus after the Augustan History The Gordian with his daughter Tranquillina is placed too early by Gibbon (240 ad) Alexandrine coins prove that it took place in the fourth tribunate the emperor between 30th August 241 and 29th August 242.] 61 Hist August p 161 [xx 24 and 25] From some hints in the two letters I should expect that the eunuchs were not expelled the palace without some degree gentle violence and that young Gordian rather approved than consented to their disgrace. Hist August p 50 [vii 11] Dion l lxxii p 1220 [19] He received for each time decies about £8000 sterling 41 Victor tells us that Commodus only allowed his antagonists a leaden weapon dreading most probably the consequences their despair [Cæsar 4.] 42 They were obliged to repeat six hundred and twenty-six times Paulus first the Secutors &c. [Not Mauritania but Numidia See C I L viii 2170.] 33 [The legion iii Augusta.] Chardin says that European travellers have diffused among the Persians some ideas the freedom and mildness our governments They have done them a very ill fice 64 They alleged the example Scipio and Cato (Tacit Annal iii 66) Marcellus Eprius and Crispius Vibius had acquired two millions and a half under Nero Their wealth which aggravated their crimes protected them under Vespasian See Tacit Hist iv 43 Dialog de Orator c 8 For one accusation Regulus the just object Pliny’s satire received from the senate the consular ornaments and a present sixty thousand pounds. See a dissertation the Abbé Mongault in the first volume the Academy Inscriptions [For the whole subject see the admirable article Mr Purser on Apotheosis in the new edit Smith’s Dictionary Greek and Roman Antiquities.] 30 Jurandasque tuum per nomen ponimus aras says Horace to the emperor himself and Horace was well acquainted with the court Augustus 31 See Cicero in Philippic i 6 Julian in Cæsaribus Inque Deûm templis jurabit Roma per umbras is the indignant expression Lucan; but it is a patriotic rather than a devout indignation. Herodian l ii p 71 [8] 28 See an account that memorable war in Velleius Paterculus ii 119 &c who served in the army Tiberius 29 Such is the reflection Herodian l ii p 74 [9] Will the modern Austrians allow the influence? 30 In the letter to Albinus already mentioned Commodus accuses Severus as one the ambitious generals who censured his conduct and wished to occupy his place Hist August p 80 [xii 2]. Strabo l x p 485 Tacit Annal iii 69 and iv 30 See in Tournefort (Voyages au Levant Lettre viii.) a very lively picture the actual misery Gyarus 112 Lipsius de magnitudine Romanâ (l ii c iii.) computes the revenue at one hundred and fifty millions gold crowns; but his whole book though learned and ingenious betrays a very heated imagination [For the inquiry touching the revenue the empire we have not sufficient data to make even an approximate estimate.] 113 [But also in force before.] Tournefort Voyages en Grèce et Asie Mineure lettre xviii 85 The name Illyricum originally belonged to the sea-coast the Adriatic and was gradually extended by the Romans from the Alps to the Euxine Sea See Severini Pannonia l i c 3 86 A Venetian traveller the Abbate Fortis has lately given us some account those very obscure countries But the geography and antiquities the western Illyricum can be expected only from the munificence the emperor its sovereign [See Mr Jackson’s work entitled Dalmatia the Quarnero and Istria.] 29 Epirus { Included in Macedonia 146 bc; together formed a senatorial province 27 bc; after having been united with Macedonia (15 and 44 ad) restored to the senate and declared free by Nero it was made senatorial by Vespasian This Emperor probably separated Epirus (including Acarnania) imperial under a procurator 30 Asia 133 bc; senatorial 27 bc (under a consular).     Tacit Germania c 45 Plin Hist Natur xxxvii 11 [7] The latter observed with some humour that even fashion had not yet found out the use of amber Nero sent a Roman knight to purchase great quantities on the spot where it was produced the coast of modern Prussia 106 Called Taprobana by the Romans and Screndib by the Arabs It was discovered under the reign of Claudius and gradually became the principal mart of the East 107 Plin Hist Natur l vi [23] Strabo l xvii [p 798]. This name is derived by the learned from two Syriac words Ela a god and Gabal to form the forming or plastic God; a proper and even happy epithet for the Sun Wotton’s History Rome p 378 [The newer derivation is al gebal “the mountain.” The Greeks made the name into Helio-gabalos by a tempting popular etymology.] 63 [His imperial name was M Aurelius Antoninus that his reputed father.] 64 Herodian. The Life Justinian by Theophilus in the English Historical Review Vasil’ev has given an account Mr Bryce’s article in the Vizantiski Vremennik i 469 sqq 22 The Persian and Lazic wars have been related in detail in my Later Roman Empire vol i 23 His new work on the reservoirs Constantinople may be specially mentioned. The elevation and tyranny Maximin — Rebellion in Africa and Italy under the authority the Senate — Civil Wars and Seditions — Violent Deaths Maximin and his Son Maximus and Balbinus and the three Gordians — Usurpation and Secular Games Philip On p 45 n 34 Gibbon mentions nine colonies in Britain on the authority Richard Cirencester which has no value The only towns which we know to have had the rank coloniae are Camalodunum Eburacum Glevum Lindum Verulamium was a municipium. Humphrey [III] de Bohun & his wife had [five] children: The Constitution the Roman Empire in the Age the Antonines The terror the Roman arms added weight and dignity to the moderation the emperors They preserved peace by a constant preparation for war; and while justice regulated their conduct they announced to the nations on their confines that they were as little disposed to endure as to fer an injury The military strength which it had been sufficient for Hadrian and the elder Antoninus to display was exerted against the Parthians and the Germans by the emperor Marcus The hostilities the barbarians provoked the resentment that philosophic monarch and in the prosecution a just defence Marcus and his generals obtained many signal victories both on the Euphrates and on the The military establishment the Roman empire which thus assured either its tranquillity or success will now become the proper and important object our attention. 37 Syria 64 bc; imperial under consular legatus 27 bc Edition: current; Page: [316] 38 Syria Palaestina (= Judæa) separated from Syria 70 ad imperial under legatus 39 Arabia 106 ad imperial 40 Aegyptus 30 bc imperial domain under praefectus Aegypti. Imperator (from which we have derived emperor) signified under the republic no more than general and was emphatically bestowed by the soldiers when on the field battle they proclaimed their victorious leader worthy that title When the Roman emperors assumed it in that sense they placed it after their name and marked how ten they had taken it [Thus as an imperial title imperator preceded the emperor’s name but Imp iii after his name meant that he was saluted Imperator by his troops for the third time on the occasion his second victory after his accession.] 8 Dion l liii p 703 etc [11. Byzantina Ocherki materialy i zamietki po Vizantiskim drevnostiam 1891-3 I must not omit to mention Dr Mordtmann’s valuable Esquisse topographique (1892) and N Destunis has made noteworthy contributions to the subject. Olaus Rudbeck asserts that the Swedish women ten bear ten or twelve children and not uncommonly twenty or thirty; but the authority Rudbeck is much to be suspected 10 In hos artus in hæc corpora quæ miramur excrescunt Tacit Germania c 20 Cluver l i c 14 11 Plutarch in Mario The Cimbri by way amusement ten slid down mountains snow on their broad shields. I have principally drawn this account from the Zendavesta M d’Anquetil and the Sadder subjoined to Dr Hyde’s treatise It must however be confessed that the studied obscurity a prophet the figurative style the East and the deceitful medium a French or Latin version may have betrayed us into error and heresy in this abridgment Persian theology [Unfortunately the Sadder is a late compilation — post-Mahometan.] 14 [This doctrine is not Zoroastrian Late systems endeavoured to overcome the dualism and unify the two principles by assuming a higher principle — space or time or fate — from which both sprang.] In the five hundred and thirty-eighth year the era Seleucus See Agathias l ii p 63 [27] This great event (such is the carelessness the Orientals) is placed by Eutychius as high as the tenth year Commodus and by Moses Chorene as low as the reign Philip Ammianus Marcellinus has so servilely copied (xxiii 6) his ancient materials which are indeed very good that he describes the family the Arsacides as still seated on the Persian throne in the middle the fourth century. The Chronicler 354 gives ninety-nine days for the reign Maximus and Balbinus; and twenty days for that the two Gordians but Seeck shows from Zonaras (622 d.) and Glycas (243 c.) that this number should be twenty-two Allowing roughly 130 days from the elevation the Gordians to the fall Maximus and Balbinus we get 24th March as the latest possible date for the elevation the Gordians This calculation would suit Cod Just vii 26 5 (Imp Gordianus A Marino) which is subscribed xii Kal April Pio et Pontiano Coss and would prove that the reign Gordianus began before 21st March But we should have to emend Impp Gordiani It must be remembered that this plausible reconstruction Seeck depends on the emendation.     The Save rises near the confines Istria and was considered by the more early Greeks as the principal stream the Danube 88 [Thrace is Eastern Roumelia; Macedonia and Greece Western Roumelia Since Greece became independent one hears less Western Roumelia but the name is still applicable to Macedonia; Greece has severed her connection with the usurped inheritance New Rome Only the Eastern Roumelia will as a rule be found marked on maps See Appendix 7.] 89 See the Periplus Arrian He examined the coasts the Euxine when he was governor Cappadocia. Leges rem surdam inexorabilem esse T Liv ii 3 59 If we credit Capitolinus (which is rather difficult) Falco behaved with the most petulant indecency to Pertinax on the day his accession The wise emperor only admonished him his youth and inexperience Hist August p 55 [viii 5]. Ælius Lampridius dedicated his Imperial biographies to Constantine He began with Commodus if not earlier and intended to include Diocletian and Maximian The latest his Lives that exists is that Alexander Severus The original MS the Historia Augusta from which our MSS are derived contained a complete series Imperial biographies from Hadrian to Carinus put together from the works these six writers The work Pollio and its continuation by Vopiscus were included in their entirety The contributions drawn from the various biographers may be conveniently seen in the following table:—     Spanheim de Numismat Dissertat xii tom ii 493 [Horc Comm and on Alexandrine coins Ῥωμαɩ̂ον Ἡρακλέα] 34 Dion l lxxii p 1216 [15] Hist August p 49 [vii 8] 35 The ostrich’s neck is three feet long and composed seventeen vertebræ See Buffon Hist Naturelle. The invention a new sauce was liberally rewarded: but if it was not relished the inventor was confined to eat nothing else till he had discovered another more agreeable to the Imperial palate Hist August p 111 [xvii 29] 69 He never would eat sea-fish except at a great distance from the sea; he then would distribute vast quantities the rarest sorts brought at an immense expense to the peasants the inland country Hist August p 109 [xvii 23] 70 Dion l lxxix p 1358 [9] Herodian l. Two sons Caracalla9 and Geta were the fruit this Edition: current; Page: [164] and the destined heirs the empire The fond hopes the father and the Roman world were soon disappointed by these vain youths who displayed the indolent security hereditary princes and a presumption that fortune would supply the place merit and application Without any emulation virtue or talents they discovered almost from their infancy a fixed and implacable antipathy for. The first volume a 12 volume set Gibbon’s magisterial history the end the Roman Empire one the greatest works history written during the Enlightenment Copyright information: The text is in the public domain Fair use statement: This material is put online to further the educational goals Liberty Fund Inc Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes It may not be used in any way. The best text the Historia Augusta is that H Peter who is the chief authority on the subject Out the large literature which bears on these biographies I may refer to Gemoll’s Die Script Hist Aug 1886 which has been largely used in this account the Augustan Biographies Dessau has recently proved (Hermes 1889) that the Lives were seriously interpolated in the age Theodosius His daring thesis that they are entirely forgeries is rejected by Mommsen who admits the interpolations (ib 1890). Ibid p 1307 [23] Herodian l iv p 158 [9] The former represents it as a cruel massacre the latter as a perfidious one too It seems probable that the Alexandrians had irritated the tyrant by their railleries and perhaps by their tumults [The punishment Alexandria which was given over to the soldiers to plunder was hardly such an act caprice as Gibbon represents it The harshness Caracalla to that city was inherited from Severus; under both reigns Alexandrine coins are very rare There seem to have been serious conspiracies in Egypt which demanded summary dealing.] 40 Dion l lxxvii. Herodian l iv p 139 [1] 22 Herodian l iv p 144 [4] [Yet in this proposal we can see foreshadowed the geographical division the empire among two or more emperors which was made a principle government by Diocletian The tendency to disruption between the eastern and western groups provinces had been already seen in the revolt Avidius Cassius and the “tyranny” Pescennius Niger In fact at the elevation Severus the four sovereignties Diocletian — the four Prefectures Constantine — are shadowed forth (1) Albinus in Gaul; (2) Julianus in Italy; (3) Severus in the Illyrian Peninsula; (4) Niger in Asia are in a sense forerunners Constantine Maximian Galerius and Diocletian respectively.] For the account this war see Herodian l vi p 209 212 [5] The old abbreviators and modern compilers have blindly followed the Augustan History [Though no very glorious exploit was wrought in this campaign Alexander it is clear that the Persians were completely checked in their advance westward and that the Romans gained some victories Cp Aurelius Victor Cæsar 24 2 and Eutropius viii 23 Not an inch ground was lost to the empire.] 65 Eutychius tom ii p 180 vers Pocock The great Chosroes Noushirwan sent the code Artaxerxes to all his satraps as the invariable rule their conduct. See the original letter in the Augustan History p 152 [xx 5] which at once shows Alexander’s respect for the authority the senate and his esteem for the proconsul appointed by that assembly 23 By each his concubines the younger Gordian left three or four children His literary productions though less numerous were by no means contemptible 24 Herodian l vii p 243 [6] Hist August p 144 [xix 14]. I now discharge my promise and complete my design writing the History the Decline and Fall the Roman Empire both in the West and the East The whole period extends from the age Trajan and the Antonines to the taking Constantinople by Mahomet the Second; and includes a review the Crusades and the state Rome during the middle ages Since the publication the first volume twelve years have elapsed; twelve years according to my wish “ health leisure and perseverance.” I may now congratulate my deliverance from a long and laborious service and my satisfaction will be pure and perfect if the public favour should be extended to the conclusion. Tacit Germ 7 54 Tacit Germ 13 14 55 Esprit des Loix l xxx c 3 The brilliant imagination Montesquieu is corrected however by the dry cold reason the Abbé de Mably Observations sur l’Histoire de France tom i p 356 56 Gaudent muneribus sed nec data imputant nec acceptis obligantur Tacit. The modern philosophers Sweden seem agreed that the waters the Baltic gradually sink in a regular proportion which they have ventured to estimate at half an inch every year Twenty centuries ago the flat country Scandinavia must have been covered by the sea; while the high lands rose above the waters as so many islands various forms and dimensions Such indeed is the notion given us by Mela Pliny and Tacitus the vast countries round the Baltic See in the Bibliothèque Raisonnée tom xl and xlv a large abstract Dalin’s History Sweden composed in the Swedish language 3 In particular Mr Hume and the Abbé du Bos and M Pelloutier Hist des Celtes. Cæsar de Bell Gall vi 23 49 Minuunt controversias is a very happy expression Cæsar’s 50 Reges ex nobilitate duces ex virtute sumunt Tacit Germ 7 51 Cluver Germ Ant l i c 38 52 Cæsar vi 22. He became Pontiff in 12 bc Besides being Pont Max Augustus belonged to the other sacerdotal colleges He was augur septemvir quindecimvir. From the Metelli Hist August p 129 [xviii 44] The choice was judicious In one short period twelve years the Metelli could reckon seven consulships and five triumphs See Velleius Paterculus ii 11 and. Dion Cassius l liii p 710 [16] with the curious Annotations Reimar [Augustus rendered in Greek by Σεβαστός cast a certain religious halo over the head the emperor; cp Dion loc cit.] 33 As Octavianus advanced to the banquet the Cæsars his colour changed like that the chameleon; pale at first then red afterwards black he at last assumed the mild livery Venus and the Graces (Cæsars p 309) This image employed by Julian in his ingenious fiction is just and elegant; but when he considers this change character as real and ascribes it to the power philosophy he does too much honour to philosophy and to Octavianus. Bergier Histoire des grands Chemins de l’Empire Romain I ii c 1-28 92 Procopius in Hist Arcanâ c 30 Bergier Hist des grands Chemins I iv Codex Theodosian l viii tit v vol ii p 506-563 with Godefroy’s learned commentary. 13 Alpes Cottiæ under Nero imperial (under a procurator et praeses) 14 Alpes Poeninæ (or A Poeninæ et Graiæ); in second century became an imperial province (under a procurator) 15 Britannia 43 ad imperial 16 Rætia 15 bc imperial (under a procurator); but after Marcus Aurelius governed by the legatus pro prætore the legion Concordia. A weak prince will always be governed by his domestics The power slaves aggravated the shame the Romans; and the senate paid court to a Pallas or a Narcissus There is a chance that a modern favourite may be a gentleman 27 See a treatise Van Dale de Consecratione Principum It would be easier for me to copy than it has been to verify the quotations that learned Dutchman 28 [And Alexander himself.] The wretched Julian had expected and thought himself prepared to dispute the empire with the governor Syria; but in the invincible and rapid approach the Pannonian legions he saw his inevitable The hasty arrival every messenger increased his just apprehensions He was successively informed that Severus had passed the Alps; that the Italian cities unwilling or unable to oppose his progress had received him with the warmest pressions joy and duty; that the important place Ravenna had surrendered without resistance and that the Hadriatic fleet was in the hands the conqueror The enemy was now within two hundred and fifty miles Rome; and every moment diminished the narrow span life and empire allotted to Julian. Eutropius held the fice magister memorias at the court Valens (365-378 ad) to whom he dedicated his Short Roman History (Breviarium ab urbe condita) He had taken part as he tells us in the fatal expedition Julian 363 ad (x 16 1) His handbook which comes down to the death Jovian was a success and had the honour being translated into Greek about 380 ad by the Syrian Paeanius a pupil Libanius (see above p 237) It contrasts favourably with other books the kind both in matter and in style His chief sources were Suetonius the writers the Historia Augusta and the work the unknown author who is generally designated as the “Chronographer 354.” The Helvetian nation which issued from the country called Switzerland contained every age and sex 368,000 persons (Cæsar de Bell Gall i 29) At present the number people in the Pays de Vaud (a small district on the banks the Leman Lake much more distinguished for politeness than for industry) amounts to 112,591 See an excellent Tract M Muret in the Mémoires de la Société de Berne 38 Paul Diaconus c 1 2 3 Machiavel Davila and the rest Paul’s followers represent these emigrations too much as regular and concerted measures. The Extent and Military Force the Empire in the Age the Antonines Dion l lxxi Hist August in Marco [iv 9 12 17 20 22 &c.] The Parthian victories gave birth to a crowd contemptible historians whose memory has been rescued from oblivion and exposed to ridicule in a very lively piece criticism Lucian 32 The poorest rank soldiers possessed above forty pounds sterling (Dionys Halicarn iv 17) a very high qualification at a time when money was so scarce that an ounce silver was equivalent to seventy pound weight brass The populace excluded by the ancient constitution were indiscriminately admitted by Marius See Sallust de Bell Jugurth. The deification Antinous his medals statues temples city oracles and constellation are well known and still dishonour the memory Hadrian Yet we may remark that the first fifteen emperors Claudius was the only one whose taste in love was entirely correct For the honours Antinous see Spanheim Commentaires sur les Cæsars de Julien p 80 49 Hist August p 13 [ii 1] Aurelius Victor in Epitom [9] 50 Without the help medals and inscriptions we should be ignorant this fact so honourable to the memory Pius [But see Hist Aug iii i 7 We have their names. Plin Hist Natur xii 18 In another place he computes half that sum Quingenties HS for India exclusive Arabia 113 The proportion which was 1 to 10 and 12½ rose to 14 2/3 the legal regulation Constantine See Arbuthnot’s Table ancient Coins c v 114 Among many other passages see Pliny (Hist Natur iii 5) Aristides (de Urbe Româ) and Tertullian (de Animâ. Augustus at first intended to found the principate as a continuation the proconsular imperium with the consulate and he held the consulate from 27 to 23 bc But then he changed his mind as this arrangement gave rise to some difficulties and replaced the consular power by the tribunitian power which had been conferred on him for life in 36 bc after his victory over Sextus Pompeius Thus the principate depended on the association the proconsular with the tribunitian power; and Augustus dated the years his reign from 23 not from 27 bc After this be filled the consulship only in those years in which he instituted a census (5) P 83 — “Supreme pontiff.” Tiberius and Domitian never moved from the neighbourhood Rome Nero made a short journey into Greece “Et laudatorum Principum usus ex sequo quamvis procul agentibus Sævi proximis ingruunt.” Tacit Hist iv 75 37 [There is a coin however which suggests that Caracalla returned to Italy and Rome in 214 ad after his successful campaigns on the Rhine and Neckar Eckbel vii 211.] 38 Dion l lxxvii. 28 Achaia { Included in Macedonia 146 bc; together formed a senatorial province 27 bc; after having been united with Macedonia (15 and 44 ad) restored to the senate and declared free by Nero it was made senatorial by Vespasian This Emperor probably separated Epirus (including Acarnania) imperial under a procurator. Hyde de Rel Persar c 23 24 D’Herbelot Bibliothèque Orientale Zordusht Life Zoroaster in tom ii the Zendavesta 32 Compare Moses Chorene l ii c 74 with Ammian Marcellin xxiii 6 Hereafter I shall make use these passages 33 Rabbi Abraham in the Tarikh Schickard. See his life in the Augustan History The undistinguishing compiler has buried these interesting anecdotes under a load trivial and unmeaning circumstances 84 See the 13th Satire Juvenal 85 Hist August p 119 [xviii 18]. When the Germans commanded the Ubii Cologne to cast f the Roman yoke and with their new freedom to resume their ancient manners they insisted on the immediate demolition the walls the colony “Postulamus a vobis muros coloniæ munimenta servitii detrahatis; etiam fera animalia si clausa teneas virtutis obliviscuntur.” Tacit Hist iv 64 23 The straggling villages Silesia are several miles in length See Cluver l i c 13 24 One hundred and forty years after Tacitus a few more regular structures were erected near the Rhine and Danube Herodian l. Dion l lxxxix p 1350 [1] Elagabalus reproached his predecessor with daring to seat himself on the throne; though as Prætorian prefect he could not have been admitted into the senate after the voice the crier had cleared the house The personal favour Plautianus and Sejanus had broken through the established rule They rose indeed from the equestrian order; but they preserved the prefecture with the rank senator and even with the consulship [Macrinus was the first man equestrian order who became emperor.] That the Caracul Ossian is the Caracalla the Roman history is perhaps the only point British antiquity in which Mr Macpherson and Mr Whitaker are the same opinion; and yet the opinion is not without difficulty In the Caledonian war the son Severus was known only by the appellation Antoninus; and it may seem strange that the Highland bard should describe him by a nickname invented four years afterwards scarcely used by the Romans till after the death that emperor and seldom employed by the most ancient historians See Dion l lxxviii p 1317 [9] Hist August p 89 [xiii 9] Aurel Victor [epit 21] Euseb in Chron ad ann 214 17 Dion l lxxvi p 1282 [14] Hist August p 72 [x 20] Aurel Victor. [He intended to form two new provinces Marcomannia and Sarmatis.] 88 [For our authorities on early German History see vol ii App 1.] 89 See an excellent dissertation on the origin and migrations nations in the Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions tom xviii p 48-71 It is seldom that the antiquarian and the philosopher are so happily blended. Herodian l vi p 223-227 [8 and 9 The date Alexander’s death is March (18 or 19 according to Borghesi) 235 Maximin was acknowledged by the senate on the 25th J Löhrer (de C Julio Vero Maximino 1883) has sought to fix the date as Feb 10.] 8 Caligula the eldest the four was only twenty-five years age when he ascended the throne; Caracalla was twenty-three Commodus nineteen and Nero no more than seventeen 9 [His imperial name is C Julius Verus Maximinus.] 20 Dalmatia or Illyricum { After its conquest Pannonia was added to the province Illyria (44 bc) imperial; which was broken up into Pannonia and Dalmatia 10-14 ad; Dalmatia under a consular legatus Pannonia was broken up by Trajan (102-107 ad) into the two Pannoniæ each under a consular legatus (at least under Marcus) 21 Moesia superior { Moesia 6 ad an imperial province was broken up into the two Moesias by Domitian under consular legati. Plin Panegyric c 37 [The tax was known as vicesima hereditatium = 5 per cent.] 124 See Heineccius in the Antiquit Juris Romani l ii 125 Horat l ii Sat v Petron c 116 &c Plin l ii Epist 20 126 Cicero in Philipp. Vegetius de Re Militari l ii c 5 &c Considerable part his very perplexed abridgment was taken from the regulations Trajan and Hadrian; and the legion as he describes it cannot suit any other age the Roman empire 45 Vegetius de Re Militari l ii c 1 In the purer age Cæsar and Cicero the word miles was almost confined to the infantry Under the Lower Empire and in the times chivalry it was appropriated almost as exclusively to the men at arms who fought on horseback [This account the army demands some corrections See Appendix 4.] M de Voltaire tom xiv p 297 unsupported by either fact or probability has generously bestowed the Canary Islands on the Roman empire [In recent years the history and geography the Roman Africa have been explored by French scholars Tissot Géographie comparée de la province romaine d’Afrique 1884-8; Fastes de la province d’Afrique 1885; Cagnat L’armée romaine d’Afrique 1893; may be mentioned.] 96 Bergier Hist des Grands Chemins l iii c 1 2 3 4: a very useful collection 97 See Templeman’s Survey the Globe; but I distrust both the doctor’s learning and. The enemies Marcus charged him with hypocrisy and with a want that simplicity which distinguished Pius and even Verus (Hist Aug p 34 [iii 29]) This suspicion unjust as it was may serve to account for the superior applause bestowed upon personal qualifications in preference to the social virtues Even Marcus Antoninus has been called a hypocrite; but the wildest scepticism never insinuated that Cæsar might possibly be a coward or Tully a fool Wit and valour are qualifications more easily ascertained than humanity or the love justice. The chronological difficulties the year 238 which exercised Tillemont Clinton Eckbel (vii 293 sqq.) and Borghesi have been recently discussed with care by O Seeck in a paper in the Rheinisches Museum xli (p 161 sqq.) 1886 and by J Löhrer in his monograph de Julio Vero Maximino. Besides improved methods dealing with the old material much new material various kinds has been discovered since the work Gibbon To take one department our coins have increased in number It seems a pity that he who worked at his Spanheim with such diligence was not able to make use Eckhel’s great work on Imperial coinage which began to appear in 1792 and was completed in 1798 Since then we have had Cohen and the special works Saulcy Edition: current; Page: [lviii] and Sabatier M Schlumberger’s splendid study Byzantine sigillography must be mentioned in. The progress religion is well known The use letters was introduced among the savages Europe about fifteen hundred years before Christ; and the Europeans carried them to America about fifteen centuries after the Christian era But in a period three thousand years the Phœnician alphabet received considerable alterations as it passed through the hands the Greeks and Romans [The date here given for the introduction the Phœnician alphabet to Europe that is among the Greeks is much too early The earliest date that can be plausibly maintained is the tenth century the latest the eighth But there are traces hieroglyphic writing at Mycenæ and Mr Arthur Evans’s discoveries in Crete point to the use not only hieroglyphics but a syllabary (like the Cyprian) centuries before the introduction the Phœnician letters.] He was a native Cæsarea in Numidia and began his fortune by serving in the household Plautian from whose ruin he narrowly escaped His enemies asserted that he was born a slave and had exercised among other infamous pressions that Gladiator The fashion aspersing the birth and condition an adversary seems to have lasted from the time the Greek orators to the learned grammarians the last age 51 Both Dion and Herodian speak the virtues and vices Macrinus with candour and impartiality; but the author his Life in the Augustan History seems to have implicitly copied some the venal writers employed by Elagabalus to blacken the memory his predecessor. The poet Buchanan celebrates with elegance and spirit (see his Sylvæ v.) the unviolated independence his native country But if the single testimony Richard Cirencester was sufficient to create a Roman province Vespasiana to the north the wall that independence would be reduced within very narrow limits 13 See Appian (in Prooem [5]) and the uniform imagery Ossian’s poems which according to every hypothesis were composed by a native Caledonian 14 See Pliny’s Panegyric which seems founded. The subject the ancient machines is treated with great knowledge and ingenuity by the Chevalier Folard (Polybe tom ii p 233-290) He prefers them in many respects to our modern cannon and mortars We may observe that the use them in the field gradually became more prevalent in proportion as personal valour and military skill declined with the Roman empire When men were no longer found their place was supplied by machines See Vegetius ii 25 Arrian 62 Vegetius finishes his second book and the description the legion with the following emphatic words: “Universa quæ in quoque belli genere necessaria esse creduntur secum legio debet ubique portare ut in quovis loco fixerit castra armatam faciat civitatem.” Dion l lxix p 115 [9] Hist August p 5 8 [i 10 and 16] If all our historians were lost medals inscriptions and other monuments would be sufficient to record the travels Hadrian [See Dürr Die Reisen des Kaisers Hadrian 1881.] 28 See the Augustan History and the Epitomes [Date: 138-161 ad] Achilleus arose at this time (295-6 ad) as a tyrant at Alexandria; but that he made either at this date or at any previous date an incursion into the Upper Egypt there is not a trace evidence in our authorities I am convinced however that this error was not originally due to the author but merely a treacherous misprint which was overlooked by him in correcting the pro sheets and has also escaped the notice his editors By a slight change in punctuation we obtain a perfectly correct statement the situation: — “Julian had assumed the purple at Carthage Achilleus at Alexandria; and even the Blemmyes renewed or rather continued their incursions into the Upper Egypt.” One hundred and fifteen cities appear in the Notitia Gaul; and it is well known that this appellation was applied not only to the capital town but to the whole territory each state But Plutarch and Appian increase the number tribes to three or four hundred 76 D’Anville Notice de l’Ancienne Gaule [These frontier districts received their names when the true province Germany between Rhine and Elbe which had been won by Drusus was lost by the defeat Varus in 9 ad] 77 Whitaker’s History Manchester vol. Caracalla consecrated in the temple Serapis the sword with which as he boasted he had slain his brother Geta Dion l lxxvii p 1307 [23] 24 Herodian l iv p 147 [4] In every Roman camp there was a small chapel near the headquarters in which the statues the tutelar deities were preserved and adored; and we may remark that the eagles and other military ensigns were in the first rank these deities; an excellent institution which confirmed discipline by the sanction religion See Lipsius de Militiâ Romanâ iv 5 v 2 25 Herodian l iv p 148 [4] Dion l lxxvii. This kingdom from Osrhoes who gave a new name to the country to the last Abgarus had lasted 353 years See the learned work M Bayer Historia Osrhoena et Edessena 57 Xenophon in the preface to the Cyropædia gives a clear and magnificent idea the extent the empire Cyrus Herodotus (l iii c 79 &c.) enters into a curious and particular description the twenty great Satrapies into which the Persian empire was divided by Darius Hystaspis 58 [Dion. Commodus killed a camelopardalis or giraffe (Dion l lxxii p 1211 [10]) the tallest the most gentle and the most useless the large quadrupeds This singular animal a native only the interior parts Africa has not been seen in Europe since the revival letters and though M de Buffon (Hist Naturelle tom xiii.) has endeavoured to describe he has not ventured to delineate the giraffe 37 Herodian l i p 37 [15] Hist August p 50 [vii 11]. Augustus restored the ancient severity discipline After the civil wars he dropped the endearing name Fellow-Soldiers and called them only Soldiers (Sueton in August c 25) See the use Tiberius made the senate in the mutiny the Pannonian legions (Tacit Annal i [25]) 37 [Caligula was slain by ficers the prætorian guards.] 38 These words seem to have been the constitutional language See Tacit.     Hist August p 34 [iv 29] 5 Meditat l i [17] The world has laughed at the credulity Marcus; but Madame Dacier assures us (and we may credit a lady) that the husband will always be deceived if the wife condescends to dissemble 6 Dio Cassius l lxxi p 1195 [31] Hist August p 33 [iv 26] Commentaire de Spanheim sur les Cæsars de Julien p 289 The deification Faustina is the only defect which Julian’s criticism is able to discover in the all-accomplished character Marcus. Dion l lxxii p 1221 [20] He speaks his own baseness and danger 44 He mixed however some prudence with his courage and passed the greatest part his time in a country retirement; alleging his advanced age and the weakness his eyes “I never saw him in the senate,” says Dion “except during the short reign Pertinax.” All his infirmities had suddenly left him and they returned as suddenly upon the murder that excellent prince Dion l lxxiii. Tacit Annal xi 23 24 Hist iv 74 39 See Plin Hist Natur iii 5 Augustin de Civitate Dei xix 7 Lipsius de pronunciatione Linguæ Latinæ c 3 40 Apuleius and Augustin will answer for Africa; Strabo for Spain and Gaul; Tacitus in the life Agricola for Britain; and Velleius Paterculus for Pannonia To them we may add the language the Inscriptions [The statement in the text needs modification especially in regard to Britain.] Diodorus Siculus in Eclog Hist l xxxiv and xxxvi Florus iii 19 20 50 See a remarkable instance severity in Cicero in Verrem v 3 51 See in Gruter and the other collectors a great number inscriptions addressed by slaves to their wives children fellow-servants masters &c They are all most probably the Imperial age. To resume in a few words the system the Imperial government as it was instituted by Augustus and maintained by those princes who understood their own interest and that the people it may be defined an absolute monarchy disguised by the forms a commonwealth The masters the Roman world surrounded their throne with darkness concealed their irresistible strength and humbly pressed themselves the accountable ministers the senate whose supreme decrees they dictated and The censorship Augustus was only temporary; it was not considered one the necessary prerogatives the princeps for that as Gibbon says would have meant the destruction the independence the senate It must be remembered that in the theory the principate the independence the senate was carefully guarded though practically the influence the princeps was predominant Augustus discharged the functions censor repeatedly; not however under that name but as præfectus morum Gibbon is wrong in stating (p 83) that the censorship was one the Imperial prerogatives He was followed in this by Merivale (2) P 77 — “Prince the Senate.” Athenæus Deipnosophist l vi p 272 Edit Casaubon Meursius de Fortunâ Atticâ c 4 [For the population Athens see Clinton’s Fasti Hellenici vol i p 381 and Boeckh’s Staatshaushaltung der Athener But new light has been thrown on the Athenian as on other ancient populations by Beloch He estimates the population Athens c 431 bc at 35,000.] 23 [Perhaps about 20,000 See Mommsen Hist Rome i 436 Eng Tr.] 24 See a very accurate collection the numbers each Lustrum in M de Beaufort République Romaine l. The crime majesty was formerly a treasonable fence against the Roman people As tribunes the people Augustus and Tiberius applied it to their own persons and extended it to an infinite latitude 66 After the virtuous and unfortunate widow Germanicus had been put to death Tiberius received the thanks the senate for his clemency She had not been publicly strangled; nor was the body drawn with a hook to the Gemoniæ where those common malefactors were exposed See Tacit Annal vi 25 Sueton in Tiberio. Duchess Constance & her third husband had [three] children: The Claudian the Numidian the Carystian and the Synnadian The colours Roman marbles have been faintly described and imperfectly distinguished It appears however that the Carystian was a sea-green and that the marble Synnada was white mixed with oval spots purple [rose-red] See Salmasius ad Hist August p 164 [xx 32 2] [The Numidian was a yellow crocus.] 21 Hist August p 151 152 [xx 3 and 4] He sometimes gave five hundred pair gladiators never less than one hundred and fifty He once gave for the use the Circus one hundred Sicilian and as many Cappadocian horses The animals designed for hunting were chiefly bears boars bulls stags elks wild asses &c Elephants and lions seem to have been appropriated to Imperial magnificence. Hist August p 135 [xviii 61] I have stened some the most improbable circumstances this wretched biographer From this ill-worded narration it should seem that the prince’s buffoon having accidentally entered the tent and awakened the slumbering monarch the fear punishment urged him to persuade the disaffected soldiers to commit the murder [The place the event was doubtless Mainz or its neighbourhood (so the Chronicle Jerome based on the Canon Eusebius) but Lampridius Hist Aug xviii 59 and Aurelius Victor Cæsar xxiv 4 strangely place the assassination at Sicilia in Britain I do not press to understand either Britain or Sicilia Schiller guesses a confusion with Vicus Britannicus Bretzenheim. Many the Roman physicians were slaves See Dr Middleton’s Dissertation and Defence [On the state Physicians among the Old Romans 1734.] 60 Their ranks and fices are very copiously enumerated by Pignorius de Servis [For whole subject cp Wallon Hist de l’Esclavage.] 61 Tacit Annal xiv 43 They all were executed for not preventing their master’s murder 62 Apuleius in Apolog p 548 Edit Delphin. But before this time a considerable part his great work had been accomplished The first quarto volume the “Decline and Fall” appeared in February 1776 As is usually the case with historical works it occupied a much longer period than its successors and was the fruit about ten years labour It passed rapidly through three editions received the enthusiastic eulogy Hume and Robertson and was no doubt greatly assisted in its circulation by the storm controversy that arose about his Fifteenth and Sixteenth Chapters In April 1781 two more volumes appeared and the three concluding volumes were published Edition: current; Page: [xxiv] together on the 8th May 1788 being the fifty-first birthday the author. (P 17 footnote 53 = 18 footnote 55.) “As in the instance Horace and Agricola.” These words are erased Note: “quod mihi pareret legio Romana Tribuno (Horat Serm l i vi 45) a worthy commander three and twenty from the school Athens! Augustus was indulgent to Roman birth liberis Senatorum militiam auspicantes non tribunatum modo legionum sed et praefecturas alarum dedit (Sueton c 38).” (P 32 footnote 86 = 33 footnote 94.) “A league and a half above the surface the sea.” Note: “More correctly according to Mr Bouguer 2500 toises (Buffon Supplement tom v p 304) The height Mont Blanc is now fixed to 2416 toises (Saussure Voyage dans les Alpes tom i p 495): but the lowest ground from whence it can be seen is itself greatly elevated above the level the sea He who sails by the isle Teneriff contemplates the entire Pike from the foot to the summit.” His work entitled Atlantica is uncommonly scarce Bayle has given two most curious extracts from it République des Lettres Janvier et Février 1685. The citation original documents (both genuine and spurious) is a feature the Historia Augusta Vopiscus and perhaps the others in some cases took these directly from the originals in the Ulpian Library but in the case the earlier Lives it is highly probable that they were drawn at second hand from Marius Maximus who included such pièces justicatifs in his work The uncertainty which prevailed in the reign Diocletian as to leading events which happened as late as the reign Aurelian is illustrated instructively by the dispute among historical students recorded by Vopiscus as to whether Firmus the tyrant Egypt had been invested with the purple and reigned as an Emperor or not (xxix 2). About the year 186 M de Tillemont is miserably embarrassed with a passage Dion in which the Empress Faustina who died in the year 175 is introduced as having contributed to the Severus and Julia (l lxxiv p 1243 [3]) The learned compiler forgot that Dion is relating not a real fact but a dream Severus; and dreams are circumscribed to no limits time or space Did M de Tillemont imagine that s were consummated in the Temple Venus at Rome? Hist des Empereurs tom iii p 389 Note 6 4 Hist August p 65 [x 3] 5 Ibid p 85 [xiii 10]. Julian in the Cæsars taxes him with being accessory to the death Commodus 49 [By this epithet Gibbon alludes to the rhythmical acclamations which were the usage in the proceedings the senate In the adclamationes graves recorded here by Lampridius the words hostis and parricide recur as a sort refrain.] 50 Capitolinus gives us the particulars these tumultuary votes which were moved by one senator and repeated or rather chaunted by the whole body Hist August p 52 [vii 18].     As I have already observed it is perhaps on the Slavonic side the history the Empire that Gibbon is most conspicuously inadequate Since he wrote various causes have combined to increase our knowledge Slavonic antiquity The Slavs themselves have engaged in methodical investigation their own past; and since the entire or partial emancipations the southern Slavs from Asiatic rule a general interest in Slavonic things has grown up throughout Europe Gibbon dismissed the history the First Bulgarian Kingdom from its foundation in the reign Constantine Pogonatus to its overthrow by the second Basil in two pages To-day the author a history the Empire on the same scale would find two hundred a strict limit Gibbon tells us nothing the Slavonic missionaries Cyril and Methodius round whose names an extensive literature has been formed It is only in recent years that the geography the Illyrian peninsula has become an accessible subject study. Herodian was Syrian birth and like Dion was employed in the civil service but in far humbler grades If he had ever risen to the higher magistracies if he had ever held the exalted position a provincial governor he would certainly have mentioned his success; the general expression which he employs “Imperial and public fices” (i 2) shows sufficiently that he had no career The title his work was “Histories the Empire after Marcus,” and embraced in eight Books the reigns from the accession Commodus to that Gordian III His own comments on the events which he relates are tedious; and the importance his book rests on the circumstance that he was an honest contemporary; he has none the higher qualities an historian (Kreutzer’s dissertation De Herodiano rerum Rom scriptore 1881 may be referred to.)

The prefects were changed almost hourly or daily; and the caprice Commodus was ten fatal to his most favoured chamberlains Hist August 46 51 [vii 14 and 15] 46 Dion l lxxii p 1222 [22] Herodian l i p 43 Hist August p 52 [vii 17] [The situation on the death Commodus has been well compared with the situation on the death Nero The general joy at deliverance from tyranny the measures taken by the senate in branding the memory the fallen tyrant were alike; and Pertinax the successor Commodus closely resembled Galba the successor Nero in age respectability good intentions and unfitness for the imperial power (Schiller. Earl Simon & his wife had four children: As in the instance Horace and Agricola This appears to have been a defect in the Roman discipline; which Hadrian endeavoured to remedy by ascertaining the legal age a tribune [For the equites compare Mommsen Staatsrecht iii 476-569.] 56 See Arrian’s Tactics [4] 57 Such in particular was the state the Batavians Tacit Germanis. There had been no example three successive generations on the throne; only three instances sons who succeeded their fathers The s Cæsars (notwithstanding the permission and the frequent practice divorces) were generally unfruitful 2 Hist August p 138 [xix 1] 3 [His father’s name was Micca his mother’s Hababa.] [A rampart from the Clyde to the Forth built in the reign Antoninus Pius by the prefect Lollius Urbicus For this wall see Stuart’s Caledonia.] 79 [We shall find late Greek historians calling the Genoese Ligurians (Λιγοόριοι) It sounds odd but serves to remind us that the great city Liguria did not preserve the ancient name the territory like her eastern rival the great city Venetia.] He broke into the sanctuary Vesta and carried away a statue which he supposed to be the Palladium; but the vestals boasted that by a pious fraud they had imposed a counterfeit image on the prane intruder Hist August p 103 [xvii 6] 66 [That is the Phœnician settlers in Africa; for Astarte was a Syrian goddess.] 67 Dion l lxxix p 1360 [12] Herodian l v p 193 [6] The subjects the empire were obliged to make liberal presents to the newly-married couple; and whatever they had promised during the life Elagabalus was carefully exacted under the administration Mamæa. We must however remember that in the time Hadrian a rebellion the Jews raged with religious fury though only in a single province Pausanias (l viii c 43) mentions two necessary and successful wars conducted by the generals Pius 1st Against the wandering Moors who were driven into the solitudes Atlas 2d Against the Brigantes Britain who had invaded the Roman province Both these wars (with several other hostilities) are mentioned in the Augustan History p 19 [iii 5] 30 Appian Alexandria in the preface to his History the. 34 Lycia and Pamphylia 43 ad; after various changes definitely constituted as imperial by Vespasian 74 ad but transferred to the senate by Hadrian 35 Cilicia 102 bc At one time apparently united with Syria but independent since Vespasian From Hadrian (including Trachea) imperial under legatus; Severus transferred Isauria and Lycaonia from Galatia to Cilicia 36 Cyprus 58 bc; at first united with Cilicia; 22 bc became an independent senatorial province. As long as Rome and Italy were respected as the centre government a national spirit was preserved by the ancient and insensibly imbibed by the adopted citizens The principal commands the army were filled by men who had received a liberal education were well instructed in the advantages Edition: current; Page: [213] laws and letters and who had risen by equal steps through the regular succession civil and military To their influence and example we may partly ascribe the modest obedience the legions during the two first centuries the Imperial history. Eutychius (tom i p 367 371 375) relates the siege the Island Mesene in the Tigris with some circumstances not unlike the story Nisus and Scylla 39 Agathias ii p 64 [26] The princes Segestan defended their independence during many years As romances generally transport to an ancient period the events their own time it is not impossible that the fabulous exploits Rustan Prince Segestan may have been grafted on this real history. The European provinces Rome were protected by the course the Rhine and the Danube The latter those mighty streams which rises at the distance only thirty miles from the former flows above thirteen hundred miles for the most part to the south-east collects the tribute sixty navigable rivers and is at length through six mouths received into the Euxine which appears scarcely equal to such an accession The provinces the Danube soon acquired the general appellation Illyricum or the Illyrian frontier,85 and were esteemed the most warlike the empire; but they deserve to be more particularly considered under the names Rhætia Noricum Pannonia Dalmatia Dacia Mæsia Thrace Macedonia and Greece. Quod tamen patres dum periculosum existimant inermes armato registere approbaverunt Aurelius Victor [Cæsar 25] 26 Even the servants of the house the scribes &c were excluded and their office was filled by the senators themselves We are obliged to the Augustan History p 157 [xx 12] for preserving this curious example of the old discipline of the commonwealth 27 [The true text has a confident future; di facient ut esse iam desinat Gibbon renders it faciant which stood in the edition which. Hist August p 65 [x 8 7; and cp 6] 49 This practice invented by Commodus proved very useful to Severus He found at Rome the children many the principal adherents his rivals; and he employed them more than once to intimidate or seduce the parents 50 Herodian l iii p 96 Hist August p 67 68 [x 8 9] 51 Hist August p 81 [xii 7] Spartianus has inserted this curious letter at full length. 19 Pannonia inferior { After its conquest Pannonia was added to the province Illyria (44 bc) imperial; which was broken up into Pannonia and Dalmatia 10-14 ad; Dalmatia under a consular legatus Pannonia was broken up by Trajan (102-107 ad) into the two Pannoniæ each under a consular legatus (at least under Marcus).

Tacit Germ ii 19 Literarum secreta viri pariter ac fœminæ ignorant We may rest contented with this decisive authority without entering into the obscure disputes concerning the antiquity the Runic characters The learned Celsius a Swede a scholar and a philosopher was opinion that they were nothing more than the Roman letters with the curves changed into straight lines for the ease engraving See Pelloutier Histoire des Celtes l ii c 11 Dictionnaire Diplomatique tom i p 223 We may add that the oldest Runic inscriptions are supposed to be the third century and the most ancient writer who mentions the Runic characters is Venantius Fortunatus (Carm vii 18) who lived towards the end the sixth century. Caracalla had assumed the names several conquered nations; Pertinax observed that the name Geticus (he had obtained some advantage over the Goths or Getæ) would be a proper addition to Parthicus Alemannicus &c Hist August p 89 [xiii 10 6] 30 Dion l lxxvii p 1291 [5] He was probably descended from Helvidius Priscus and Thrasea Pætus those patriots whose firm but useless and unseasonable virtue has been immortalised by Tacitus 31 [Dion says that Caracalla on his accession had deposed Papinian from this fice; and Dion was in a position.     Another historical epitome dedicated to Valens was that (Rufus) Festus who seems also to have been a magister memoriae The time at which his book was composed can be precisely fixed to 369 ad by his reference to “this great victory over the Goths” (c 29) gained by Valens in that year and by the fact that he is ignorant the province Valentia which was formed Edition: current; Page: [311] in the same year Festus has some valuable notices for the history the fourth century. Since then a Greek scholar K Paparrigopulos has covered the whole history Greece from the earliest times to the present century in his Ἰστορία τον̂ Ἑλληνικον̂ ἔθνους The same gigantic task but in a more popular form has been undertaken and begun by Pressor Lambros but is not yet finished 17 Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur (565-1453) 1891 18 I was seduced by this hypothesis Ranke (Later Roman Empire i 363) but no longer believe. Earl Robert & his wife had [seven] children: Barbara fraxineis pingatur R u n a tabellis [See Zacher Das Gothische Alphabet Vulfilas und das Runenalphabet; Mr Isaac Taylor Greeks and Goths; Stephen’s Runic Monuments Mr Taylor’s theory that the Runic alphabet was originally derived from the Greeks by the trade route which existed at a very early age between the Euxine and the Baltic is gaining ground It was certainly developed in Scandinavia not in Germany The number Runic inscriptions found in Germany is very small.] 18 Recherches Philosophiques sur les Américains tom iii p 228 The author that very curious work is if I am not misinformed a German by birth [De Pauw.] [Gibbon has fallen into error by confusing different occasions There is no reason to suppose that Ulpian’s life was in danger during the street battles between the populace and guards They disobeyed his discipline then but it was in a later mutiny directed against himself that he was slain See Zonaras xii 15 and Dion lxxx 2.] 89 Though the author the life Alexander (Hist August p 132 [xviii 51]) mentions the sedition raised against Ulpian by the soldiers he conceals the catastrophe as it might discover a weakness in the administration his hero From this designed omission we may judge the weight and candour that author. For the De Mortibus Persecutorum compare vol ii Appendix 10 p 357-358 ('title:loaded'); Copyright ©2004 - 2018 Liberty Fund Inc All rights reserved Application designed and developed by Walter Davis Studio [Back to Top] Edward Gibbon The History the Decline and Fall the Roman Empire.     [There is no good ground for the identification mons Graupius with the Grampian hills The date the battle was 84 or 85 ad; the place is quite uncertain.] 10 The Irish writers jealous their national honour are extremely provoked on this occasion both with Tacitus and with Agricola [Agricola’s design was not carried out because Domitian refused to send the additional legion.] 11 See Horsley’s Britannia Romana l. The long range moderate height and gentle declivity Mount Atlas (see Shaw’s Travels p 5) are very unlike a solitary mountain which rears its head into the clouds and seems to support the heavens The peak Teneriff on the contrary rises a league and a half above the surface the sea and as it was frequently visited by the Phœnicians might engage the notice the Greek poets See Buffon Histoire Naturelle tom i p 312 Histoire des Voyages. Upon the insolence and privileges the soldiers [prætorian guards] the 16th satire falsely ascribed to Juvenal may be consulted; the style and circumstances it would induce me to believe that it was composed under the reign Severus or that his son [The opinion modern scholars inclines to regard it as genuine.] 68 Hist August p 75 [xi 3] 69 Herodian l. The contemporaries Severus in the enjoyment the peace and glory his reign forgave the cruelties by which it had been introduced Posterity who experienced the fatal effect his maxims and example justly considered him as the principal author the decline the Roman Edition: current; Page: [162] CHAPTER VI The death Severus — Tyranny Caracalla — Usurpation Macrinus — Follies Elagabalus — Virtues Alexander Severus — Licentiousness the army — General state the Roman Finances In an appendix to the second volume his translation Tavernier’s Travels in India Mr V Ball has pointed out (p 457) that the diamond mine Soumelpour on the Gouel is not to be identified as hitherto with Sambulpur on the Mahánadi but is the same as “Semah or Semulpur on the Koel in the Sub-Division Palámau.” In the original and all subsequent editions Gibbon the name was spelt “Jumelpur.” Mr Ball rightly remarks that this is merely a misprint; and I have corrected it in. Most these as may be supposed were small open vessels; some however were galleys two and a few three ranks oars 57 The engineer’s name was Priscus His skill saved his life and he was taken into the service the conqueror For the particular facts the siege consult Dion Cassius (l lxx[i]v p 1251 [11-13]) and Herodian (l iii p 95 [6]): for the theory it the fanciful Chevalier de Folard may be looked into See Polybe tom. Agathias the Greek historian who wrote at the end the sixth century Edition: current; Page: [321] made a special study Sassanid history and through a friend derived information from Persian documents His digression on the origin the new Persian kingdom (bk ii 26 27) is important Rawlinson’s Sixth and Seventh Oriental Monarchies treat the Parthian and new Persian periods respectively Gutschmid Geschichte Irans von Alexander dem Grossen bis zum Untergang der Arsaciden 1888 Justi Geschichte Persiens Nöldeke Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sassaniden 1879 Schneiderwirth Die Parther 1874 Drexler Caracallas Zug nach dem Orient. Hamelin & his [second] wife had [four] children: He who paid ten aurei the usual tribute was charged with no more than the third part of an aureus and proportional pieces of gold were coined by Alexander’s order Hist August p 127 [xviii 39] with the commentary of Salmasius 134 See the lives of Agricola Vespasian Trajan Severus and his three competitors; and indeed of all the eminent men of. See the Augustan History p 166 [xxi 1] from the registers of the senate; the date is confessedly faulty but the coincidence of the Apollinarian games enables us to correct it [Iunias in Hist Aug xxi 1 is supposed to be a mere slip of the pen for Iulias.] Flavius Vopiscus Syracuse pressedly continued the work Pollio and carried it down as far as the death Carinus and accession Diocletian He wrote at least the life Aurelian between 1st May 305 and 25th July 306 the period in which Constantius was Emperor; et est quidem iam Constantius imperator. See the Augustan History [1 18] and a dissertation M de Burigny in the xxxvth volume the Academy Inscriptions upon the Roman slaves 53 See another dissertation M de Burigny in the xxxviith volume on the Roman freedmen 54 Spanheim Orbis Roman l i c 16 p 124 &c 55 Seneca de Clementiâ l i c 24 The original is much stronger “Quantum periculum immineret si servi nostri numerare nos cœpissent.” The Union and Internal Prosperity the Roman Empire in the Age the Antonines “the thirst of military glory will ever be the vice of the most exalted [characters but he] lamented with a sigh that his advanced age &c.” All included within the brackets is erased and the following substituted: “the most exalted minds Late generations and far distant climates may impute their calamities to the immortal author of the Iliad The spirit of Alexander was inflamed by the praises of Achilles: and succeeding Heroes have been ambitious to tread in the footsteps of Alexander Like him the Emperor Trajan aspired to the conquest of the East; but the Roman lamented with a sigh,” &c. And who regarded history as “little more than the register the crimes follies and misfortunes mankind” (see below p 98) 1 Dion Cassius (l liv p 736 [8]) with the annotations Reimar who has collected all that Roman vanity has left upon the subject The marble Ancyra on which Augustus recorded his own exploits asserts that he compelled the Parthians to restore the ensigns Crassus. [This is put rather unfairly Money was wanted for the military operations on the frontiers; and one can feel little indignation that the amusements the populace should have been postponed for the defence the empire Gibbon hardly seems to realise that Maximin’s warfare was serious and that his organisation the frontier defences was capital importance.] 15 Herodian l vii p 238 [3] Zosimus l. The Romans made war in all climates and by their excellent discipline were in a great measure preserved in health and vigour It may be remarked that man is the only animal which can live and multiply in every country from the equator to the poles The hog seems to approach the nearest to our species in that privilege 13 Tacit German c 3 The emigration of the Gauls followed the course of the Danube and discharged itself on Greece and Asia Tacitus could discover only one inconsiderable tribe that retained any traces of a Gallic origin [The Cotini c 43 They were certainly not Gallic.] The execution Helvidius Priscus and the virtuous Eponina disgraced the reign Vespasian 60 [But there is another side to this picture which may be seen by studying Mommsen’s volume on the provinces.] 61 Voyage de Chardin en Perse vol iii p 293 62 The practice raising slaves to the great fices state is still more common among the Turks than among the Persians The miserable countries Georgia and Circassia supply rulers to the greatest part. Hist August p 133 [xviii 55] 62 M de Tillemont has already observed that Herodian’s geography is somewhat confused 63 Moses Chorene (Hist Armen l ii c 71) illustrates this invasion Media by asserting that Chosroes King Armenia defeated Artaxerxes and pursued him to the confines India The exploits Chosroes have been magnified and he acted as a dependent ally to the Romans [But Chosroes really inflicted a serious defeat on Ardeshîr in 228 drove him back from Armenia and invaded his realm pressing as far as Ctesiphon if not to the borders Arabia The Romans had not yet appeared on. Earl Gilbert & his first wife had two children: Public sale the empire to Didius Julianus by the Prætorian Guards — Clodius Albinus in Britain Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Pannonia declare against the murderers Pertinax — Civil wars and victory Severus over his three rivals — Relaxation discipline — New maxims government Agathias l iv p 134 [24 As nothing is said here the Magi it has been supposed by Sir Wm Smith that Gibbon meant to refer to ii 26.] 29 Mr Hume in the Natural History Religion sagaciously remarks that the most refined and philosophic sects are constantly the most intolerant 30 Cicero de Legibus ii 10 Xerxes by the advice the Magi destroyed the temples Greece. During the second Punic war the Romans imported from Asia the worship the mother the gods Her festival the Megalesia began on the fourth April and lasted six days The streets were crowded with mad processions the theatres with spectators and the public tables with unbidden guests Order and police were suspended and pleasure was the only serious business the city See Ovid de Fastis l iv 189 &c 21 Herodian l i p 23 28 [10] 22 Cicero pro Flacco. But the most important care Mamæa and her wise counsellors was to form the character the young emperor on whose personal qualities the happiness or misery the Roman world must ultimately depend The fortunate soil assisted and even prevented the hand cultivation An excellent understanding soon convinced Alexander the advantages virtue the pleasure knowledge and the necessity labour A natural mildness and moderation temper preserved him from the assaults passion and the allurements vice His unalterable regard for his mother and his esteem for the wise Ulpian guarded his unexperienced youth from the poison flattery. See Dr Robertson’s Preface to his History America 1 It is stated that there are also unimportant annotations in vols iv and vi 2 The influence Gibbon’s picture Julian can be discerned in Ibsen’s “Emperor and Galilæan.” 3 In a footnote to the Autobiography. The wars Justinian22 in the west have been fully and admirably related by Mr Hodgkin with the exception the obscure conquest Spain on which there is too little to be said and nothing further seems likely to come to light In regard to the ecclesiastical policy Justinian there is still a field for research. Ii The excise introduced by Augustus after the civil wars was extremely moderate but it was It seldom exceeded one per cent.; but it comprehended whatever was sold in the markets or by public auction from the most considerable purchases land and houses to those minute objects which can only derive a value from their infinite multitude and daily consumption Such a tax as it affects the body the people has ever been the occasion clamour and discontent An emperor well acquainted with the wants and resources the state was obliged to declare by a public edict that the support the army depended in a great measure on the produce the Meanwhile in a part Europe which deems itself to have received the torch from the Emperors as it has received their torch from the Patriarchs and which has always had a special regard for the city Constantine some excellent work was being done In Russia Muralt edited the chronicle George the monk and his Continuers and compiled Byzantine Fasti The Journal the Ministry Public Instruction is the storehouse a long series most valuable articles dealing from various sides with the history the later Empire by those indefatigable workers Uspenski and Vasilievski At length in 1894 Krumbacher’s lead has been followed and the Vizantiski Vremennik a Russian counterpart the Byzantinische Zeitschrift has been started under the joint editorship Vasilievski and Regel and is clearly destined with the help Veselovski Kondakov Bieliaiev and the rest a goodly fellowship to make. The wife Maximin by insinuating wise counsels with female gentleness sometimes brought back the tyrant to the way truth and humanity See Ammianus Marcellinus xiv 1 [8] where he alludes to the fact which he had more fully related under the reign the Gordians We may collect from the medals that Paullina was the name this benevolent empress; and from the title Diva that she died before Maximin (Valesius ad loc cit Ammian.) Spanheim de U et P N tom ii p 300 13 He was compared to Sparticus and Athenio Hist August p 141 [xix 9]. Ii The second period the Decline and Fall Rome may be supposed to commence with the reign Justinian who by his laws as well as by his victories restored a transient splendour to the Eastern Empire It will comprehend the invasion Italy by the Lombards; the conquest the Asiatic and African provinces by the Arabs who embraced the religion Mahomet; the revolt the Roman people against the feeble princes Constantinople; and the elevation Charlemagne who in the year 800 established the second or German Empire. Id c 11 12 13 &c 46 Grotius changes an expression Tacitus pertractantur into praetractantur The correction is equally just and ingenious [Germ 11 apud principes pertractentur No change is necessary; pertractentur means “be thoroughly discussed.” But the general meaning is the same.] 47 Even in our ancient parliament the barons ten carried a question not so much by the number votes as by that their armed followers.         Earl Gilbert & his second wife had four children: Under the reign these monsters60 the slavery the Romans was accompanied with two peculiar circumstances the one occasioned by their former liberty the other by their extensive conquests which rendered their condition more wretched than that the victims tyranny in any other age or country From these causes were derived 1 The exquisite sensibility the sufferers; and 2 The impossibility escaping from the hand the oppressor. The Italian Veneti though ten confounded with the Gauls were more probably Illyrian origin See M Freret Mémoires de l’Académie des Inscriptions tom xviii 81 See Maffei Verona illustrata 82 The first contrast was observed by the ancients See Florus i 11 The second must strike every modern traveller 83 Pliny (Hist Natur l iii [6]) follows the division Italy by Augustus.     [Schiller remarks that the events which attended the elevation Vespasian repeat themselves in that Severus His march recalls the march Antonius Primus with the Pannonian legions Julianus neglected to occupy the Alpine passes.] 35 This is not a puerile figure rhetoric but an allusion to a real fact recorded by Dion l lxxi p 1181 [7] It probably happened more than once 36 Dion l lxxiii p 1238 [16] Herodian l ii p 81 [11] There is no super pro the military skill the Romans than their first surmounting the idle terror and afterwards disdaining the dangerous use elephants. Sir William Temple and Montesquieu have indulged on this subject the usual liveliness their fancy 40 Machiavel Hist di Firenze l i Mariana Hist Hispan l v c 1 41 Robertson’s Cha V Hume’s Politic Ess 42 Tacit Germ 44 45 Freinshemius (who dedicated his supplement to Livy to Christina Sweden) thinks proper to be very angry with the Roman who expressed so very little reverence for Northern queens. His health however gradually improved and when he entered Magdalen College Oxford it might have been expected that a new period intellectual development would have begun; but Oxford had at this time sunk to the lowest depth stagnation and to Gibbon it proved extremely uncongenial He complained that he found no guidance no stimulus and no discipline and that the fourteen months he spent there were the most idle and unpritable his life They were very unexpectedly cut short by his conversion to the Roman Catholic faith which he formally adopted at the age sixteen. These colonies were extremely numerous Seleucus Nicator founded thirty-nine cities all named from himself or some his relations (see Appian in Syriac p 124 [57]) The era Seleucus (still in use among the Eastern Christians) appears as late as the year 508 Christ 196 on the medals the Greek cities within the Parthian empire See Moyle’s works vol i p 273 &c and M Freret Mém de l’Académie tom xix 37 The modern Persians distinguish that period as the dynasty the kings the nations See Plin Hist. Usener Der heilige Theodosios 1890 Krumbacher Studien zu den Legenden des heiligen Theodosios 1892 It is worth while to state briefly what the chief problem is The legends the saints were collected rehandled cleansed casual heresy and put into literary form in the tenth century (towards its close according to Vasilievski) by Symeon Metaphrastes Most our MSS are derived from the edition Symeon; but there are also extant some comparatively few containing the original pre-Symeonic versions which formed the chief literary recreation ordinary men and women before the tenth century The problem is to collect the materials for a critical edition as many legends as have been preserved in their original form When that is done we shall have the data for fully appreciating the methods Symeon As for the text Krumbacher points out that what we want is a thoroughgoing study the Grammar. (P 6 = 6.) “On the immortality and transmigration soul” (compare footnote) Note: “Julian assigns this Theological cause whose power he himself might be conscious (Cæsares p 327) Yet I am not assured that the religion Zamolxis subsisted in the time Trajan; or that his Dacians were the same people with the Getae Herodotus The transmigration the soul has been believed by many nations warlike as the Celts or pusillanimous like the Hindoos When speculative opinion is kindled into practical enthusiasm its operation will be determined by the previous character the man or the nation.” For an account Ulpian’s fate and his own danger see the mutilated conclusion Dion’s History l lxxx p 1371 [4] 91 Annotat Reimar ad Dion Cassius l. The provinces fell into two classes according as consulars or prætorians were admitted to the post governor But this distinction must not be confounded with that the titles pro consule and pro prætore which were borne by the governors senatorial and Imperial provinces respectively The representative the emperor could not be pro consule as his position depended on the proconsular imperium the emperor himself A vir consularis might be pro prætore The full title the Imperial lieutenant was legatus Augusti pro prætore In the dependent kingdoms were placed procuratores equestrian rank (4) P 82 — “Consular and tribunitian powers.” Earl Walthe & his wife had two children: Gibbon read widely and had a large general knowledge history which supplied him with many happy illustrations It is worth pointing out that the gap in his knowledge ancient history was the period the Diadochi and Epigoni If he had been familiar with that period he would not have said that Diocletian was the first to give to the world the example a resignation sovereignty He would have referred to the conspicuous case Ptolemy Soter; Mr Freeman would have added Lydiadas the tyrant Megalopolis the earlier example Asarhaddon Gibbon could not.     There is not any writer who describes in so lively a manner as Herodotus the true genius Polytheism The best commentary may be found in Mr Hume’s Natural History Religion; and the best contrast in Bossuet’s Universal History Some obscure traces an intolerant spirit appear in the conduct the Egyptians (see Juvenal Sat xv.); and the Christians as well as Jews who lived under the Roman empire formed a very important exception; so important indeed that the discussion will require a distinct chapter this work 4 The rights power and pretensions the sovereign Olympus are very clearly described in the xvth book the Iliad: in the Greek original I mean; for Mr Pope without perceiving it has improved the theology Homer. Edward Gibbon The History the Decline and Fall the Roman Empire ed J.B Bury with an Introduction by W.E.H Lecky (New York: Fred de Fau and Co 1906) in 12 vols Vol 1 /titles/1365 [His original name was C Octavius hence Merivale usually (incorrectly) speaks him as Octavius For he ceased to be an Octavius and became a Julius by his uncle’s adoption; his full name in 44 bc was C Julius Cæsar Octavianus The title Augustus was conferred Jan 16 27 bc] 2 Orosius vi 18 3 Julius Cæsar introduced soldiers strangers and half-barbarians into the senate (Sueton in Cæsar c 80.) The abuse became still more scandalous after. Hist August p 152 [xx 3] The celebrated house Pompey in corinis was usurped by Marc Antony and consequently became after the Triumvir’s death a part the Imperial domain The emperor Trajan allowed and even encouraged the rich senators to purchase those magnificent and useless palaces (Plin Panegyric c 50); and it may seem probable that on this occasion Pompey’s house came into the possession Gordian’s great-grandfather. Dion l lxxiv p 1243 [2] [It was the policy Severus (the African) to level the distinctions which had subsisted between Italy and the provinces Some acts Hadrian had already pointed in the same direction See Appendix 11 Caracalla as we shall see carried the policy to its logical end.] 71 One his most daring and wanton acts power was the castration a hundred free Romans some them married men and even fathers families; merely that his daughter on her with the young emperor might be attended by a train eunuchs worthy an Eastern queen Dion l lxxvi p 1271 [1] [The daughter’s name was Fulvia Plautilla Caracalla. Iv In general the Lives are arranged in chronological order There are three remarkable deviations (1) Didius Julianus comes after Verus and before Commodus in the place where we should expect Avidius Cassius while Avidius comes where we expect Julianus (2) Albinus comes after Macrinus instead following Pescennius; and (3) Heliogabalus Diadumenus Macrinus takes the place the proper order Macrinus Diadumenus Heliogabalus In all three cases Peter has corrected the MSS in his edition These misplacements cannot be explained by mistakes in the binding the sheets (quaternions) the archetype though such mistakes certainly occurred and led to minor misplacements notably that in the Life Alexander c 43 (see Peter’s ed.). William [IV] & his second wife had two children: The carelessness the writers that age leaves us in a singular perplexity 1 We know that Maximus and Balbinus were killed during the Capitoline games Herodian l viii p 285 [8] The authority Censorinus (de Die Natali c 18) enables us to fix those games with certainty to the year 238 but leaves us in ignorance the month or day 2 The election Gordian by the senate is fixed with equal certainty to the 27th May; but we are at a loss to discover whether it was in the same or the preceding year Tillemont and Muratori who maintain the two opposite opinions bring into the field a desultory troop authorities conjectures and probabilities The one seems to draw out the other to contract the series events between those periods more than can be well reconciled to reason and history Yet it is necessary to choose between them [See further Appendix 12.] From the faint glimmerings such doubtful and scattered lights we should be inclined to believe 1st That (with every fair allowance for the difference times and circumstances) the general income the Roman provinces could seldom amount to less than fifteen or twenty millions our money;112 and 2ndly That so ample a revenue must have been fully adequate to all the expenses the moderate government instituted by Augustus whose court was the modest family a private senator and whose military establishment was calculated for the defence the frontiers without any aspiring views conquest or any serious apprehension a foreign invasion. In Mahometan history in general it may be added not only has advance been made by access to new literary oriental documents but its foundations have been more surely grounded by numismatic researches especially those Mr Stanley Lane-Poole This scholar’s recently published handbook containing tables and lists the “Mohammadan” Dynasties is a guerdon for which students history must be most deeply grateful The special histories Mahometan Sicily and Spain have been worked out by Amari and Dozy For the Mongols we have the overwhelming results Sir Henry Howorth’s learning and devotion to his “vasty” subject.     Either a hundred or a hundred and ten years Varro and Livy adopted the former opinion but the infallible authority the Sybil consecrated the latter (Censorinus de Die Natal c 17) The emperors Claudius and Philip however did not treat the oracle with implicit respect 74 The idea the secular games is best understood from the poem Horace and the description Zosimus l ii p 167 [5] &c [Milliarium Sæculum is on. Earl Hugh & his wife had [four] children: See Tacit Germ c 3 Diodor Sicul l v [29] Strabo l iv p 197 The classical reader may remember the rank Demodocus in the Phæacian court and the ardour infused by Tyrtæus into the fainting Spartans Yet there is little probability that the Greeks and the Germans were the same people Much learned trifling might be spared if our antiquarians would condescend to reflect that similar manners will naturally be produced by similar situations 73 Missilia spargunt Tacit Germ c 6 Either that historian used a vague expression or he meant that they were thrown at random. May we not suspect that superstition was the parent despotism? The descendants Odin (whose race was not extinct till the year 1060) are said to have reigned in Sweden above a thousand years The temple Upsal was the ancient seat religion and empire In the year 1153 I find a singular law prohibiting the use and possession arms to any except the king’s guards Is it not probable that it was coloured by the pretence reviving an old institution? See Dalin’s History Sweden in the Bibliothèque Raisonnée tom xl and xlv 44 Tacit Germ c 43 [The Gotones that is the Goths who in the time Tacitus lived on the right bank the lower Vistula; but in the third century we find them on the Black Sea Pliny also mentions the Guttones Nat. It appears that he was totally ignorant the Greek language; which from its universal use in conversation and letters was an essential part every liberal education [His Latin was very imperfect.] 24 Dacia Apulensis { Dacia 107 ad was at first one province (imperial) Hadrian broke it up into two (superior and inferior) Marcus made a new triple division (not later than 168 ad not earlier than 158 ad) and placed the provinces under consular legati 25 Dacia Maluensis { Dacia 107 ad was at first one province (imperial) Hadrian broke it up into two (superior and inferior) Marcus made a new triple division (not later than 168 ad not earlier than 158 ad) and placed the provinces under consular legati. Plin Hist Natur l xxxiii c 3 Cicero de ficiis ii 22 Plutarch in P Æmil p 275 [38] 100 See a fine description this accumulated wealth ages in Lucan’s Phars l iii v 155 &c 101 Tacit in Annal i 11 It seems to have existed in the time Appian [The Breviarium Imperii; cp Dion lvi 33.] 102 Plutarch in Pompeio p 642 [45 There is little doubt that Plutarch means they were raised to eighty-five millions.] Marcus Antoninus obliged the vanquished Quadi and Marcomanni to supply him with a large body troops which he immediately sent into Britain Dion Cassius l lxxi [16] 59 Tacit Annal iv 5 Those who fix a regular proportion as many foot and twice as many horse confound the auxiliaries the emperors with the Italian allies the republic [See Appendix 4.] 60 Vegetius ii 2 Arrian in his order march and battle against. 7 Aquitania 27 bc { Called collectively tres Galliae at first under one imperial governor; after 17 ad each had its own imperial governor 8 Lugdunensis 27 bc { Called collectively tres Galliae at first under one imperial governor; after 17 ad each had its own imperial governor 9 Belgica 27 bc { Called collectively tres Galliae at first under one imperial governor; after 17 ad each had its own imperial governor. Bergier Hist des grands Chemins l iv c 49 96 Plin Hist Natur xix 1 [From Puteoli Pliny says.] 97 It is not improbable that the Greeks and Phœnicians introduced some new arts and productions into the neighbourhood Marseilles and Gades 98 See Homer Odyss l. Strabo l xii p 866 He had studied at Tralles 87 See a dissertation M de Bose Mem de l’Académie tom xviii Aristides pronounced an oration which is still extant to recommend concord to the rival cities 88 The inhabitants Egypt exclusive Alexandria amounted to seven millions and a half (Joseph de Bell Jud ii 16) Under the military government the Mamelukes Syria was supposed to contain sixty thousand villages (Histoire de Timur Bec l. [Compare Eckbel iii 514.] 53 Dion l lxxv p 1248 1249 1250 [1 2 3] M Bayer has neglected to use this most important passage 54 [Basileus was the title.] 55 [Caracalla promoted Carrhæ to be a Roman colony Eckbel iii 508 He seems to have formed the design annexing Armenia as a province.] It is said that the Mexicans and Peruvians without the use either money or iron had made a very great progress in the arts Those arts and the monuments they produced have been strangely magnified See Recherches sur les Américains tom ii p 153 &c 31 Tacit Germ 15 32. Copyright 1906 FRED DE FAU & COMPANY Norwood Press A collection scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets A project Liberty Fund Inc Full site Title names Author names Essays Groups Advanced Search Decies The blameless economy Pius left his successors a treasure vicies septies millies above two and twenty millions sterling Dion l lxxiii p 1231 [8] 56 Besides the design converting these useless ornaments into money Dion (l lxxiii p 1229 [5]) assigns two secret motives Pertinax He wished to expose the vices Commodus and to discover by the purchasers those who most resembled him 57 Though Capitolinus has picked up many idle tales the private life Pertinax he joins with Dion and Herodian in admiring his public conduct [viii 13]. Dion l lxxviii p 1336 [28] The sense the author is as clear as the intention the emperor; but M Wotton has mistaken both by understanding the distinction not veterans and recruits but old and new legions History Rome p 347 53 Dion l lxxviii p 1330 [23] The abridgment Xiphilin though less particular is in this place clearer than the original 54 [The temple the Sun. On the trades and industries the Imperial City on the trade corporations and the minute control exercised over them by the government new light has been thrown by M Nicole’s discovery and publication the Prefect’s Book a code regulations drawn up by Leo VI The demes Constantinople are a subject which needs investigation They are certainly not to be regarded as Gibbon and his successors have regarded them as mere circus parties They must represent as Uspenski points out in the opening number Edition: current; Page: [lxx] the new Vizantiski Vremennik organised divisions the population. The legends the Saints though properly outside the domain the historian proper ten supply him with valuable help For “Culturgeschichte” they are a direct source Finlay observed that the Acta Sanctorum contain an unexplored mine for the social life the Eastern Empire But before they can be confidently dealt with trained criticism must do its will on the texts; the relations between the various versions each legend must be defined and the tradition in each case made clear The task is huge; the libraries Europe and Hither Asia are full these holy tales But Usener has made a good beginning and Krumbacher has rendered the immense service pointing out precisely what the problems The State Persia after the Restoration the Monarchy by Artaxerxes1 In a paper entitled The Coming the Hungarians in the Scottish Review July 1892 I have discussed the questions connected with early Magyar history and criticised Hunfalvy’s Magyarország Ethnographiája (1876) and Vámbéry’s A magyarok eredete (1882) One the best works dealing with the subject has been written by a Slav (C Grot) 31 Ilovaiski’s work Istorija Rossii vol i (Kiev period) is though his main thesis is a mistake most instructive 32 Chwolson Izviestiia o Chozarach Burtasach Bolgarach Madiarach Slavaniach i Rusach. Consult the third book Herodian and the seventy-fourth book Dion Cassius 53 Dion l lxxv p 1260 [6] 54 Dion l lxxv p 1261 [6] Herodian l iii p 110 [7] Hist August p 68 [x 11] The battle was fought in the plain Trevoux three or four leagues from Lyons See Tillemont tom iii p 406 note 18 55 Montesquieu Considérations sur la Grandeur et la Décadence des Romains. The first European translation the Avesta was made by Anquetil du Perron and appeared (in 3 vols.) in 1771 just in time for Gibbon to make use The appearance this work aroused a storm controversy chiefly in England and it is interesting to observe that Gibbon was among those who accepted the Avesta as genuine documents the Zoroastrian religion It is unnecessary to say that in the present century their antiquity has been abundantly confirmed. Tertullian in Apologetic c 6 p 74 Edit Havercamp I am inclined to attribute their establishment to the devotion the Flavian family 17 See Livy l xi [12] and xxix [11] 18 Macrob Saturnalia l iii c 9 He gives us a form evocation 19 Minucius Felix in Octavio p 54 Arnobius l. His position among men letters depends both on the fact that he was an exponent important ideas and on his style The appreciation his style devolves upon the history literature; but it may be interesting to illustrate how much attention he paid to it by alterations which he made in his text The first volume was published in quarto form in 1776 and the second quarto edition this volume which appeared in 1782 exhibits a considerable number variants Having carefully collated the two editions throughout the first fourteen chapters I have observed that in most Edition: current; Page: [xl] cases the changes were made for the sake not correcting misstatements fact but improving the turn a sentence rearranging the dactyls and cretics or securing greater accuracy expression Some instances may be interesting. Ælian Hist Var l ix c 16 He lived in the time Alexander Severus See Fabricius Biblioth Græca l iv c 21 79 Joseph de Bell Jud ii 16 The number however is mentioned and should be received with a degree latitude 80 Plin Hist Natur iii 5 81 Plin Hist Natur iii 3 4 iv 35 The list seems authentic and accurate: the division the provinces and the different condition the cities are minutely distinguished. Discordiæ tacitæ et quæ intelligerentur potius quam viderentur Hist August p 170 [xxi 14] This well-chosen expression is probably stolen from some better writer [On the coins however we see amor mutuus concordia Augg &c It was arranged that Balbinus should undertake the war on the Danube Pupienus that on the Euphrates.] 56 Herodian l viii p 287 288 [8] [The date is probably August; see Appendix 12 Gibbon accepted 15th July.] 57 Quia non alius erat in præsenti is the expression the Augustan History [xxi 14].     Hist August p 140 [xix 6] Herodian l vi p 223 [8] Aurelius Victor By comparing these authors it should seem that Maximin had the particular command the Triballian horse with the general commission disciplining the recruits the whole army His biographer ought to have marked with more care his exploits and the successive steps his military promotions 5 See the original letter Alexander Severus Hist August p 149 [xix 29]. The senate condemned Nero to be put to death more majorum Sueton c 49 52 [This act has considerable significance in the history the exchequer the Roman empire Antoninus Pius had already acted in the same way making over his private property to his daughter Faustina The principle involved was the separation the Emperor’s private purse from the fiscus or public money which came to him as Emperor This separation was systematically carried out by Septimius Severus.] See the xth book Pliny’s Epistles He mentions the following works carried on at the expense the cities At Nicomedia a new forum an aqueduct and a canal left unfinished by a king; at Nice a Gymnasium and a theatre which had already cost near ninety thousand pounds; baths at Prusa and Claudiopolis; and an aqueduct sixteen miles in length for the use Sinope 70 Hadrian afterwards made a very equitable regulation which divided all treasure trove between the right property and that discovery Hist August p 9 [i 18]. Every motion Julian betrayed his trembling perplexity He insisted that Severus should be declared a public enemy by the senate He entreated that the Pannonian general might be associated to the empire He sent public ambassadors consular rank to negotiate with his rival; he despatched private assassins to take away his life He designed that the Vestal virgins and all the colleges priests in their sacerdotal habits and bearing before them the sacred pledges the Roman religion should advance in solemn procession to meet the Pannonian legions; and at the same time he Edition: current; Page: [146] vainly tried to interrogate or to appease the fates by magic ceremonies and unlawful Tum primum Comitia e campo ad patres translata sunt Tacit Annal i 15 The word primum seems to allude to some faint and unsuccessful efforts which were made towards restoring them to the people [One formality was still left to the popular assembly — the renuntiatio the elected candidates Gibbon’s inference from primum is hardly tenable; but he is right in so far that Augustus had prepared the way for the change Tiberius.] After the Danube had received the waters the Theiss and the Save it acquired at least among the Greeks the name It formerly divided Mæsia and Dacia the latter which as we have already seen was a conquest Trajan and the only province beyond the river If we inquire into the present state those countries we shall find that on the left hand the Danube Temeswar and Transylvania have been annexed after many revolutions to the crown Hungary; whilst the principalities Moldavia and Walachia acknowledge the supremacy the Ottoman Porte On the right hand the Danube Mæsia which during the middle ages was broken into the barbarian kingdoms Servia and Bulgaria is again united in Turkish slavery. Gibbon’s statements here require correction though the question the exact constitution the power the princeps is still a matter debate. The History the Decline and Fall the Roman Empire is now delivered to the public in a more convenient form Some alterations and improvements had presented themselves to my mind but I was unwilling to injure or fend the purchasers the preceding editions The accuracy the corrector the press has been already tried and approved; and perhaps I may stand excused if amidst the avocations a busy writer I have preferred the pleasures composition and study to the minute diligence revising a former publication. Strabon Geograph l xvii p 1189 83 Joseph de Bell Jud ii 16 Philostrat in Vit Sophist l ii p 548 Edit Olear [Life Herodes 3.] Since this note was written the work Borghesi on the history the Prætorian Prefects has been completed (mainly by E Cuq) and published as vol x his collected works in two parts 1897 It contains a list the prefects both before and after Constantine with the evidence set out in full 2 Sueton in August c 49 3 Tacit Annal iv 2 Suet in Tiber c 37 Dion Cassius l. Novempopuli a province cut f from Aquitania by Trajan 10 Germania superior 17 ad (?) { The civil administration these frontier districts was united with that Belgica The military commanders were consular legati 11 Germania inferior 17 ad (?) { The civil administration these frontier districts was united with that Belgica The military commanders were consular legati Edition: current; Page: [315] 12 Alpes Maritimæ 14 bc made an imperial province governed by a (prefect afterwards a) procurator. With blameworthy indiscretion I accepted this false view Paspatês in my Later Roman Empire without having gone methodically into the sources I was misled by the fame won by the supposed “topographical discoveries” this diligent antiquarian and by his undeservedly high reputation; this however is no excuse and unfortunately the error has vitiated my account the Nika revolt I have gone into the theory Paspatês in the Scottish Review (April 1894) where he is treated too leniently His misuse authorities is simply astounding I may take the opportunity saying that I hope to rewrite the two volumes my Later Roman Empire and correct so far as I may be able its many faults A third volume dealing with the ninth century will I hope appear at a not too distant date. Till the reign Severus the virtue and even the good sense the emperors had been distinguished by their zeal or affected reverence for the senate and by a tender regard to the nice frame civil policy instituted by Augustus But the youth Severus had been trained in the implicit obedience camps and his riper years spent in the despotism military command His haughty and inflexible spirit could not discover or would not acknowledge the advantage preserving an intermediate power however imaginary between the emperor and the army He disdained to press himself the servant an assembly that detested his person and trembled at his frown; he issued his commands where his request would have proved as effectual; assumed the conduct and style a sovereign and a conqueror and exercised without disguise the whole legislative as well as the executive power. Tacitus has characterised in a few words the principles the Portico: Doctores sapientiæ secutus est qui sola bona quæ honesta mala tantum quæ turpia; potentiam nobilitatem cæteraque extra animum neque bonis neque malis adnumerant Tacit Hist iv 5 55 Before he went on the second expedition against the Germans he read lectures philosophy to the Roman people during three days He had already done the same in the cities Greece and Asia Hist August p 41 in Cassio c 3 56 Dio l lxxi p 1190 [23] Hist August in Avid Cassio [8]. We can scarcely attribute to the Persian monarchy the sea coast Gedrosia or Macran which extends along the Indian Ocean from Cape Jask (the promontory Capella) to Cape Goadel In the time Alexander and probably many ages afterwards it was thinly inhabited by a savage people Ichthyophagi or Fishermen who knew no arts who acknowledged no master and who were divided by inhospitable deserts from the rest the world (See Arrian de Reb Indicis [26].) In the twelfth century the little town Taiz (supposed by M d’Anville to be the Tesa Ptolemy) was peopled and enriched by the resort the Arabian merchants (See Geographia Nubiens p 58 and d’Anville Géographie Ancienne tom ii p 283.) In the last age the whole country was divided between three princes one Mahometan and two Idolaters who maintained their independence against the successors Shaw Abbas [(Voyages de Tavernier part i l. Earl Hugh had one [illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]: In the fertile territory Byzacium one hundred and fifty miles to the south Carthage This city was decorated probably by the Gordians with the title colony and with a fine amphitheatre which is still in a very perfect state See Itinerar Wesseling p 59 and Shaw’s Travels p 117 [Thysdrus is now El-Djemm This revolt took place in spring 238 Eckbel vii 293 The chronology the events this year is hopelessly perplexing and uncertain See App 12.] 17 [M Antonius Gordianus.] 18 Herodian l vii p 239 [4] Hist August p 153 [xx 7]. For a general view the provinces the reader must be referred to Mommsen’s brilliant volume Die Provinzen von Cäsar bis Diocletian (translated into English in two vols.) For the general administration including the military system see Marquardt Handbuch der römischen Alterthümer (Staatsverwaltung vols iv.-vi.) 1 Sicilia the first Roman province 241 bc It became a senatorial province in. Tacit Germ 17 26 Tacit Germ 5 27 Cæsar de Bell Gall vi 21 28 Tacit Germ 26 Cæsar vi 22 29. Dion Cassius l lxxvi p 1275 [5] The first instance happened under the reign Septimius Severus 47 See Valerius Maximus l ii c 2 n 2 The Emperor Claudius disfranchised an eminent Grecian for not understanding Latin He was probably in some public fice Suetonius in Claud c 16 48 In the camp Lucullus an ox sold for a drachma and a slave for four drachmæ or about three shillings Plutarch in Lucull p 580 [14] [Compare Dureau de la Malle Econ Pol des Romains. Cæsar de Bell Gallic vi 23 &c The most inquisitive the Germans were ignorant its utmost limits although some them had travelled in it more than sixty days’ journey 7 Cluverius (Germania Antiqua l iii c 47) investigates the small and scattered remains the Hercynian Wood 8 Charlevoix Histoire du Canada. Dion l lxxvi p 1272 [1] Hist August p 67 [x 8] Severus celebrated the secular games with extraordinary magnificence and he left in the public granaries a provision corn for seven years at the rate 75,000 modii or about 2500 quarters per day I am persuaded that the granaries Severus were supplied for a long term but I am not less persuaded that policy on one hand and admiration on the other magnified the hoard far beyond its true contents 63 See Spanheim’s treatise ancient medals the inscriptions and our learned travellers Spon and Wheeler Shaw Pocock &c who in Africa Greece and Asia have found more monuments Severus than any other Roman emperor whatsoever. Notwithstanding the authority Spartianus and some modern Greeks we may be assured from Dion and Herodian that Byzantium many years after the death Severus lay in ruins [But the statement Spartianus (xiii 1) that Severus repented his harshness owing (ostensibly?) to the intercession Caracalla is confirmed by the legend ἀντωνείνια Σεβαστά on Byzantine coins; Eckbel ii 32 (cp Schiller i 713) Not Byzantium but its fortifications were demolished.] 59 Dion l. (C) The use “artillery” on a large scale was due to Greek influence It played an important part in the Macedonian army The fixed number engines mentioned in the text (ten onagri and fifty-five carroballistae) was perhaps introduced in the time Vespasian Vegetius ii 25; Josephus. I The policy the emperors and the senate as far as it concerned religion was happily seconded by the reflections the enlightened and by the habits the superstitious part their subjects The various modes worship which prevailed Edition: current; Page: [36] in the Roman world were all considered by the people as equally true; by the philosopher as equally false; and by the magistrate as equally useful And thus toleration produced not only mutual indulgence but even religious concord. [Before 29th August as is proved by Alexandrine coins.] 59 Quintus Curtius (l x c 9) pays an elegant compliment to the emperor the day for having by his happy accession extinguished so many fire-brands sheathed so many swords and put an end to the evils a divided government After weighing with attention every word the passage I am opinion that it suits better with the elevation Gordian than with any other period the Roman History In that case it may serve to decide the age Quintus Curtius Those who place him under the first Cæsars argue from the purity his style but are embarrassed by the silence Quintilian in his accurate list Roman historians [It is now generally agreed to place Curtius in the reign Nero; but his life we know nothing.] See the complaints Avidius Cassius Hist August p 45 [vi 14] These are it is true the complaints faction; but even faction exaggerates rather than invents 2 [L Verus his brother by adoption.] 3 [Siquidem] Faustinam satis constat [constet] apud Cayetam conditiones sibi et nauticas et gladiatorias elegisse Hist August p 30 [iv 19] Lampridius explains the sort merit which Faustina chose and the conditions which she exacted Hist August p 102 [xvii 5] [There is no trustworthy evidence for the truth these charges.] It may be noticed in this connection that at a later period Gibbon set to work to revise the second edition but did not get further than p 32 the first volume.1 His own copy with autograph marginal notes was exhibited last year on the occasion the Gibbon Centenary by the Royal Historical Society and is to be seen in the British Museum The corrections and annotations are as follows: — (P 1 = 1 this edition.) “To describe the prosperous condition their empire.” Read times for empire. Commodus was the first Porphyrogenitus (born since his father’s accession to the throne) By a new strain flattery the Egyptian medals date by the years his life; as if they were synonymous to those his reign Tillemont Hist des Empereurs tom ii p 752 [The claim Commodus to be nobilissimus omnium principum (Corp Insc Lat v 4867) was well grounded He could point to five emperors as his ancestors His imperial name was M Aurelius Commodus Antoninus He had been made a Cæsar in 166 and Imperator in 176 ad at the age 15.] 8 Hist August p 46 [vii 1]. Thus Gibbon’s attitude to religion while it was conditioned by the intellectual atmosphere Europe in that age was also the expression the man When Dean Milman spoke his “bold and disingenuous attack on Christianity,”3 he made one those futile charges which it would be impossible to prove and impossible to disprove; such imputations as are characteristic theologians in the heat controversy and may be condoned to politicians in the heat electioneering but in an historical critic are merely an impertinence. [This statement is too strong The municipal constitutions the Italian towns were hardly created in a day The old constitutions were modified by the new relation with Rome but not abolished.] 29 The first part the Verona Illustrata the Marquis Maffei gives the clearest and most comprehensive view the state Italy under the Cæsars 30 See Pausanias l vii [16] The Romans condescended to restore the names those assemblies when they could no longer be dangerous. The name Antoninus ennobled by the virtues Pius and Marcus had been communicated by adoption to the dissolute Verus and by descent to the cruel Commodus It became the honourable appellation the sons Severus was bestowed on young Diadumenianus and at length prostituted to the infamy the high priest Emesa Alexander though pressed by the studied and perhaps sincere importunity the senate nobly refused the borrowed lustre a name; whilst in his whole conduct he laboured to restore the glories and felicity the age the genuine Such an uniform conduct had already secured to Pertinax the noblest reward a sovereign the love and esteem his people Those who remembered the virtues Marcus were happy to contemplate in their new emperor the features that bright original and flattered themselves that they should long enjoy the benign influence his administration A hasty zeal to reform the corrupted state accompanied with less prudence than might have been expected from the years and experience Pertinax proved fatal to himself and to his country His honest indiscretion united against him the servile crowd who found their private benefit in the public disorders and who preferred the favour a tyrant to the inexorable equality the Cicero (de Legibus iii 3) gives the consular fice the name Regia potestas: and Polybius (l vi c 3) observes three powers in the Roman constitution The monarchical was represented and exercised by the consuls [But see Appendix 10.] 15 As the tribunitian power (distinct from the annual fice) was first invented for the dictator Cæsar (Dion l xliv p 384 [5]) we may easily conceive that it was given as a reward for having so nobly asserted by arms the sacred rights the tribunes and people See his own commentaries de Bell Civil. The present was a yoke oxen horses and arms See Germ c 18 Tacitus is somewhat too florid on the subject 61 The change exigere into exugere is a most excellent correction [c 7 Exugere plagas would hardly be possible Exigere plagas is right “to examine probe the wounds.”] 62 Tacit Germ c 7 Plutarch in Mario Before the wives the Teutones destroyed themselves and their children they had fered to surrender on condition that they should be received as the slaves the vestal virgins.     “l’auteur de la Notice — peritissimi Tillemontii verba sunt (hist 5 699) — vivoit en Occident et ne savoit pas trop l’état où estoit l’Orient; ei contradixi hodie subscribo.” It is one Gibbon’s merits that he made full use Tillemont “whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character genius,” as far as Tillemont guided him up to the reign Anastasius I.; and it is only just to the mighty work the Frenchman to impute to him a large share in the accuracy which the Englishman achieved From the historical though not from the literary point view Gibbon deserted by Tillemont distinctly declines though he is well sustained through the wars Justinian by the clear narrative Procopius. As I have ventured perhaps too hastily to commit to the press a work which in every sense the word deserves the epithet imperfect I consider myself as contracting an engagement to finish most probably in a second volume,1 the first these memorable periods; and to deliver to the Public the complete History the Decline and Fall Edition: current; Page: [xxxi] Rome from the age the Antonines to the subversion the Western Empire With regard to the subsequent periods though I may entertain some hopes I dare not presume to give any assurances The execution the extensive plan which I have described would connect the ancient and modern history the World; but it would require many years health leisure and perseverance. (B) The auxilia included all the standing troops except the legions the volunteers (cohortes Italicae civium Romanorum voluntariorum) and course the prætorian guards They were divided into cohorts and were under the command the legati Cavalry and infantry were ten combined and constituted a cohors equitata Each cohort (like the legionary cohort) had its standard and consisted six or ten centuries according to its size which might be five hundred or a thousand men To be distinguished from the auxilia were a provincial militia which appear in certain provinces (such as Rætia Britain Dacia) They were not imperial and were supported by provincial funds (Mommsen Die röm Provinzialmilizen Hermes.   After this general sketch the new prospects later Imperial history it will be useful to show by some examples what sort progress is being made and what kind work has to be done I will first take some special points interest connected with Justinian My second example shall be the topography Constantinople; and my third the large field literature composed in colloquial Greek Lastly the capital defect the second half Gibbon’s work his inadequate treatment or rather his neglect the Slavs will serve to illustrate our historical progress. The name Septimius Severus marks an important stage in the development the Principate Augustus into the absolute monarchy Diocletian If he had been followed by emperors as strong and far-sighted as himself the goal would have been reached sooner; and moreover the tendencies his policy would have been clearer to us But the administration his immediate successors was arbitrary; and the reaction under Alexander threw things back Severus had no Tiberius or Constantine to follow him; and like Augustus he committed the error founding a dynasty His example was a warning to Diocletian The records his reign show that he took little account the senate and made much the army This has been brought out by Gibbon But it would be a mistake to call his rule a military despotism He did not apply military methods to civil affairs He was more than a mere soldier-emperor: he was a considerable statesman.